Birds of Putnam County, Tennessee
Species Accounts, Part II: Pigeon through Weaver Finch

Second Edition (2006
–201
6)

Stephen J. Stedman

 

To access the species from Geese through Terns, click on the underlined part of this sentence.

 

Rock Pigeon                                                                                                                           Columba livia

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (28 March 1993, SJS and BHS).  High Count: 350 (15 December 2015, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Rock Doves have not been registered frequently on the SRS or the WRS partly because few urban stops occur on these surveys.

Eurasian Collared-Dove                                                                                     Streptopelia decaocto

            Status: A rare but increasing permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult carrying nest material (twig) 6 April 2006 (SJS).  High Count: 26 (14 December 2014, EKL [CBC]).  Records during First Five Years of Occurrence: 4 June 2003 (2) TTU (T. D. Poling); 18 September 2004 (1) Victory View Rd. (BHS); 14 May 2005 (1) TTU (KLM); 13 November/4/17 December 2005/19 February 2006 (6/11/1/3) Rt. 70 at West Gate Rd. (SJS/SJS, WAW/BHS/SJS, BHS); 2 & 7 April 2006 (1) TTU (SJS); 6 April 2006 (1—carrying a twig) Double Springs Rd. (SJS, NSL); 13 May 2006 (1/1) Phifer Mt. Rd./Double Springs (BHS/SJS), see SBC; 27 June 2006 (1) Rt. 70 about 2 km east of Rt. 56 (SJS); 13/16 December 2006 (1/1) intersection of Young Rd. and Church Rd. near Double Springs/Double Springs Rd. south of Rt. 70 (SJS/BHS TMC); 16 April 2007 (1) Double Spring (SJS, LC); 15 September 2007 (MJH, CDW, JCFuson), a FBC record.  Remarks: See CBC, FBC, SBC, and WRS; an exotic invader, first confirmed in the county on the TTU campus, where, however, captive individuals maintained for research purposes sometimes escaped, clouding the issue of first appearance somewhat; several unconfirmed sightings prior to the first listed above were probably valid as this dove was first reported in adjacent Overton County during 1995; in particular, this species was reported during the February 2001 GBBC from the  Bloomington Springs area of the county to the northwest of Double Springs (W. Walden passed this information along).

Mourning Dove                                                                                                              Zenaida macroura

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (3 April 1988, SJS).  High Count: 677 (15 December 2007, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  A Mourning Dove banded 9 March 1958 in CKV (RLD) was shot a few km east 2 September 1963 (BBL unpubl. data); Cole (1968) studied nesting behavior in CKV. The high count cited in the first edition (1993) is incorrect.

Passenger Pigeon                                                                                              Ectopistes migratorius

            Status: Extinct; a migrant through, and possibly a winter resident in, the county until the late Nineteenth Century.

Yellow-billed Cuckoo                                                                                           Coccyzus americanus

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (24 May 1993, SJS).  High Count: 17 (15 June 1991, SJS, BHS).  Extreme Dates: 24 April 2017 (JCFeBird # S36237866)–8 October 1995 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Black-billed Cuckoo                                                                                    Coccyzus erythropthalmus

            Status: A very uncommon spring migrant and rare summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds in June.  High Count: 4: 14 May 1994, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 21 April 1992 (SJS)–24 June 1997 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see BBC and SBC. Nearly all sightings involve single cuckoos.  Notable numbers registered on 1996 SRS.

Barn Owl                                                                                                                                          Tyto alba

            Status: A rare, but possibly increasing, permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (1970s, O. Ray Jordan; May–July 2001, SJS et al.; April–May 2002, CDW photo, SJS et al.).  High Count: 3 (18 December 2004, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, and SBC. Highly secretive. Photo [juvenile]: 29 May 2002, SJS

Eastern Screech-Owl                                                                                                       Megascops asio

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Young in nestbox (3 May 1999, BHS, SJS).  High Count: 25 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS (especially night survey results), and WBPS.

Great Horned Owl                                                                                                          Bubo virginianus

            Status: An uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (March–May 1998, SJS, GKE et al.; March–April 2002, CDW photo, SJS photo).  High Count: 11 (16 September 2006, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, SBC, SRS (especially night survey results), WBPS, and WRS.  Photo [juveniles]: 27 April 2002, SJS.

Barred Owl                                                                                                                                     Strix varia

            Status: An uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of birds.  High Count: 14 (20 September 2008, FBC). Remarks: See BBC, CBC, FBC, SBC, SRS (especially night survey results), and WRS.

Short-eared Owl                                                                                                              Asio flammeus

            Status: A rare winter visitor.  All Records: 10 January 1996 (1) CCP (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP following a snowfall of 7.5–10 cm [3–4 in].

Common Nighthawk                                                                                                  Chordeiles minor

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Courtship flight (24 May 1990, SJS).  High Count: 170 (11 September 1991, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 20 April 1995/2002 (SJS/GKE)–1 November 2004 (MPO).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see SBC and SRS (especially night survey results).

Chuck-will's-widow                                                                                      Antrostomus carolinensis

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 16 (8 May 1993, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 12 April 1992 (WHG)–23 July 1991 (WHG).  Remarks: Observed at BUF and CCP; see BBC, SBC. and SRS (especially night survey results). Photo: (23 June 2013; Allen Hollow Rd.; Janie C. Finch).

Eastern Whip-poor-will                                                                                                  Antrostomus vociferus

            Status: An uncommon summer resident, becoming fairly common on the Cumberland Plateau.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 30 (8 May 1993, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 26 Mar 2009 (RWS)–30 September 1986 (RWS).  Remarks: See BBC, SBC. and SRS (especially night survey results).

Chimney Swift                                                                                                           Chaetura pelagica

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Courtship flight (many dates, SJS).  High Count: 320 (10 October 2001, SJS). Extreme Dates: 28 March 1995 (SJS)–25 October 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS. 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird                                                                              Archilochus colubris

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest (spring/summer 1982, RWS [Simmers 1983]).  High Count: 137 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 29 March 2007 (MPO)–17 November 2011 (Betty Bright).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  The late fall departure date was established by an adult male (banded 7 November 2011 by Mark Armstrong).

Calliope Hummingbird                                                                                                   Selasphorus calliope

            Status: A rare winter visitor.  All Records: Late October–19 December 2000 (1 immature male) Bright Farm 4–5 km north of Monterey (BB, HB et al.).  Remarks: This hummingbird, banded 25 November 2000 (Portia McMillan, Chris Sloan), also represented the second Tennessee record.

Rufous Hummingbird                                                                                              Selasphorus rufus

            Status: A rare winter visitor.  High Count: 2 (20 December 2003, CBC; 31 January 2004, SH, Portia McMcMillan, Chris Sloan).  All Records: early October 2003–12 January 2004 (1 immature female—banded) Cowan Rd. (Mary Bennett, SJS photo [5 January 2004] et al.), see Remarks; sometime during late fall 2003–8 April 2004 (2 females, 1 immature and 1 probable adult—each banded) Aspen Dr. (SH photos et al.), see Remarks; 7 October 2004–3 April 2005 (1 adult female—banded) Aspen Dr. (SH photo [27 March 2004]), see Remarks; 8 November 2005–30 March 2006 (1 immature male—banded) Aspen Dr. (SH photo [8 November 2005]), see Remarks; 15September–9 October 2008 (1 adult male) Aspen Dr. (SH photo [16 September 2008]). Remarks: See CBC and GBBC. The Cowan Rd. female (2003–2004) was banded 22 November 2003 (Portia McMillan, Chris Sloan); the Aspen Dr. females (2003–2004) were banded 31 January 2004 (Portia McMillan, Chris Sloan); the Aspen Dr. female (2004–2005) was banded 18 November 2004 (Martha Sargent, Bob Sargent); the Aspen Dr. immature male (2005–2006) was banded 10 December 2005 (Portia McMillan, Chris Sloan).

Selasphorus sp.

            Status: Rare late fall visitors.  All Records: 12–26 November 1998 (1 female or immature) near CLN (BHS, SJS); 11–16 September 2005 (1 female or immature) Aspen Dr. (SH); and for several days ending 19 December 2009 (1 female or immature) West Oak Dr., Cookeville (Billie Higginbotham, WAW, SJS), a CBC record on last date (BHS).   Remarks: Several species, including Broad-tailed, Rufous, and Allen’s hummingbirds, fall within this genus; females and immatures within it are difficult to separate except in the hand.

Belted Kingfisher                                                                                                                Ceryle alcyon

            Status: An uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult at entrance to cavity (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 20 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Red-headed Woodpecker                                                                        Melanerpes erythrocephalus

            Status: An uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult at entrance to nest cavity (5 June 1991, SJS).  High Count: 25 (20 December 1996, CBC/10 May 2008, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, and WRS.

Red-bellied Woodpecker                                                                                     Melanerpes carolinus

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 116 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Red-bellied Woodpeckers appeared to withdraw from the escarpments during the winters of 1990–1991 and 1995–1996 but not during winter of 2000–2001 (see SRS and WRS), the plenitude of the hard mast during those winters probably dictating the choice to withdraw or not.

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker                                                                                      Sphyrapicus varius

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 35 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 16 September 2000 (GKE)–2 May 1970 (SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS. Photo [female]: January 2004, SJS.

Downy Woodpecker                                                                                               Picoides pubescens

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young fed by adult (14 June 1990, SJS).  High Count: 68 (18 December 1999, CBC; 19 September 2009, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Photo [female]: October 2007, Stan Hood.

Hairy Woodpecker                                                                                                        Picoides villosus

            Status: An uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young fed by adult (15 June 1991, SJS).  High Count: 21 (14 December 2002, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Northern ("Yellow-shafted") Flicker                                                                        Colaptes auratus

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (April 1992, BHS).  High Count: 74 (15 December 2001, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Pileated Woodpecker                                                                                               Dryocopus pileatus

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 46 (10 May 2008/9 May 2009, SBC/SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Of interest has been the steady increase in the numbers of this species on the WRS, an increase not mirrored, however, by data from the SRS. Photo [female]: City Lake, SJS.

American Kestrel

Falco sparverius

            Status: A permanent resident, fairly common and perhaps decreasing during fall, winter and spring, and uncommon and certainly decreasing during summer.  Breeding Evidence: Juveniles begging near adults (13 June 1991, SJS).  High Count: 81 (17 December 1991, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Kestrel numbers on the Cookeville CBC are often among the highest reported on Tennessee CBCs. Photo [female]: 18 February 2012, SJS.

Merlin

Falco columbarius

            Status: A very uncommon migrant and early winter visitor.  All Records:  24 September 1987 (1) Cookeville Fire Tower at end of Old Cavalry Rd. (BHS); 21 October 1989 (1) CLN (SJS); 20 September 1991 (1) Hidden Cove Rd. (SJS); 1 April 1993 (1) CCP (SJS); 20 September 1993 (1) R62 ponds (BHS); 30 September 1998 (1) CCP (SJS, GKE, Michael Breen); 20 December 1999 (1) CCP (SJS); 6 December 2002 (1—male) OMR (SJS); 2 March 2005 (1—immature or female) east of Monterey on Campground Rd. (BHS); 17 September 2005 (1—brown-backed) Overlook Circle off of The Lane Rd. near Brotherton (WAW, MPO).   Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC and FBC.

Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  All Records: 27 September 1987 (1—adult) Cookeville Fire Tower at end of Old Cavalry Rd. (SJS); 20 April 1989 (1—immature) Cookeville Fire Tower at end of Old Cavalry Rd. (BHS); 19 September 1992 (1—adult) R62 ponds (SJS, BHS); and 19 September 2009 (1—immature) Ironwood Golf Course (JuF, MJH); 22 April 2015 (1age unknown) Lakeland Drive (SJS).

Carolina Parakeet                                                                                           Conuropsis carolinensis

            Status: Extinct; formerly a visitor.  Remarks: Carolina Parakeets were present in or very near Putnam County 25 November 1799 when Abraham Steiner and Frederick C. de Schweinitz observed parakeets, mentioning their presence in a journal (Steiner and de Schweinitz 1927 in McKinley 1979).

Olive-sided Flycatcher                                                                                                     Contopus cooperi

            Status: A rare migrant.  All Records: 24 May 1990 (1) CCP (SJS); 28 August 1992 (1) Shady Lane (SJS); 28 April 1994 (1) CCP (Julie M. Pharr); 7 May 1999 (1) CCP (SJS et al.); 11 May 2002 (1) Shady Lane (BHS); 15 September 2007 (1) The Lane Rd. (WAW, TMS), a FBC record; 12 May 2012 (2) Coon Hunt Rd. CDW photo, JuF) & Joe Jackson Rd. (JaF, DAD).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see SBC.

Eastern Wood-Pewee                                                                                                       Contopus virens

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 126 (13 May 2006, SBC). Extreme Dates: 20 April 1968/1973 (SBC/SBC)–30 October 2004 (WAW).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Acadian Flycatcher                                                                                                  Empidonax virescens

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (23 May 1992, SJS).  High Count: 128 (20 May 2012, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 26 April 1989/2004 (SJS/RWS)–21 September 1998/2002/2003 (RWS/SJS/RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Acadian Flycatchers increase in frequency of occurrence on the escarpments, especially where moist habitats prevail (SRS).

Alder Flycatcher                                                                                                            Empidonax alnorum

            Status: A rarely detected spring migrant.  All Records: 28 May 2001 (1 singing) CCP (SJS); 20 May 2005 (1 singing) CCP (SJS); 20 May 2010 (1 singing) McBroom Branch Rd. (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP.

Willow Flycatcher                                                                                                            Empidonax traillii

            Status: A rare summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  All Records: 30 June & 2 July 1999 (1 singing) CCP (SJS); 20 May–21 July 2000 (1 singing) CCP (SJS et al.); 11 May–26 June 2001 (1 singing) CCP (SJS et al.); 8–30 May 2002 (2 singing plus 1 nonsinging) CCP  (SJS, SHF, MPO); 10 May–22 June 2003 (1 singing) CCP (GKE, KLM, SJS); 9–25 May 2004 (1 singing) CCP (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see SBC and SRS.

Least Flycatcher                                                                                                         Empidonax minimus

            Status: A very uncommon spring migrant and possibly a rare summer resident. Extreme Dates: 26 April 2004 (RWS)–23 May 2005 (SJS); 16 September 2006 (BHS).  High Count: 2 (10 May 2008, SJS et al.).  Out-of-Season Record: 12 June 1988 (1 singing) in an old orchard along the Calfkiller River in southeastern section of county (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN.

Eastern Phoebe                                                                                                                   Sayornis phoebe

            Status: Fairly common during spring, summer, and fall, this permanent resident is uncommon during winter.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (19 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 115 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Eastern Phoebes are cold sensitive and may be reduced in numbers by severe winter weather.

Great Crested Flycatcher                                                                                                Myiarchus crinitus

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Used nest [with snakeskin] (September 1990, BHS, ASJ, SJS).  High Count: 80 (8 May 2004, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 12 April 1992/2005 (SJS, BHS, CJB/BHS)–21 September 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Western Kingbird                                                                                                             Tyrannus verticalis

            Status: A rare fall visitor.  All records: 6 September 1990 (1) Hidden Cove Rd. (SJS).

Eastern Kingbird                                                                                                             Tyrannus tyrannus

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (5 June 1991, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 130 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 18 March 2000 (WB, SB)–3 October 2006 (JCF).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher                                                                                             Tyrannus forficatus

            Status: A rare summer and fall visitor.  All Records: 8 June 2001 (1) Nash Rd. near Cookeville Boatdock Rd. (BHS); 20 October 2004 (1) Dodson Branch Rd. about 6 km north of Gainesboro Grade (GKE). Remarks: See SBC. During the summers of 2000 and 2001 Scissor-tailed Flycatchers were observed breeding at more than a dozen sites in Tennessee; consequently, the bird seen on Nash Rd. may have been a member of a locally breeding but undetected pair. Sam B. Coward recalled a bird of this species being sighted in the county during an unspecified year prior to 1993 (fide SJS). Based on having a shortish tail and yellowish rather than pinkish flanks, a Scissor-tail-type flycatcher found on Grimsley Rd. 12 May 2012 during a spring bird count was probably hybrid with one of the kingbirds.

Loggerhead Shrike                                                                                                         Lanius ludovicianus

            Status: A very uncommon and strongly decreasing permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (14 June 1991, BHS).  High Count: 16 (17 December 1991, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Results from SRS and WRS reveal a drastic and statistically significant decline in numbers of shrikes from 1991 to 1996 or 2001 (fide DLC, KLM).  Cutting and removal of roadside and agricultural hedgerows negatively affect shrikes and other birds nesting and foraging in hedges; however, this factor alone probably does not explain the decrease of shrikes throughout the county, region, state, and continent.

White-eyed Vireo                                                                                                                         Vireo griseus

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 250 (12 May 2007, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 27 March 1991 (BHS, SJS)–20 October 2002 (SJS).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  The abundance of White-eyed Vireos in the county is inversely correlated with increasing elevation (SRS).

Yellow-throated Vireo                                                                                                          Vireo flavifrons

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 66 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 4 April 2002/2003 (RWS/RWS)–15 October 1990 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Blue-headed Vireo                                                                                                              Vireo solitarius

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and fall, and very uncommon to uncommon and still increasing during summer.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (9 & 14 May 1992, BHS, SJS, DaH).  High Count: 34 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 21 February 1998 (RWS)–23 November 1992/2000 (RWS/RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Blue-headed Vireos breed only at the higher elevations of the eastern escarpment and adjacent Cumberland Plateau, usually at sites with conifers; the lowest elevation of breeding vireos occurs in Icy Cove (c. 1300 ft).  Although increasing at many sites on the Cumberland Plateau, this vireo revealed little evidence of increasing its population or expanding its range in the county through the end of the 1990s, at which time an increase in its numbers on the SRS began to be detected; this increase continues to the present time (2006).

Warbling Vireo                                                                                                                             Vireo gilvus

            Status: A very uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (9 May 1992, SJS, CJB).  High Count: 3 (19 May 1991, SJS/10 May 2008, SBC—SJS et al./10 May 2014, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 16 April 1995 (SJS)–15 September 2001 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Note: No records exist for the period between 25 July and 15 September.

Philadelphia Vireo                                                                                                          Vireo philadelphicus

            Status: A migrant, rare during spring and very uncommon during fall.  High Count: 2 (18 September 2004 FBC). Extreme Dates: 2 May 1996 (SJS, GKE)–28 May 2001 (SJS); 8 September 2006 (BHS)–20 October 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see FBC and SBC.  The individual vireos providing the extreme dates for spring were singing birds that were also seen well.

Red-eyed Vireo                                                                                                                         Vireo olivaceus

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult carrying food for young (4 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 691 (13 May 2006, SBC); this count is probably also a record high count for Tennessee.  Extreme Dates: 7 April 1991 (SJS)–15 October 1987 (BHS).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Note frequency of Red-eyes on the escarpments (SRS).

Blue Jay                                                                                                                                    Cyanocitta cristata

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult building nest (19 April 1988, BHS).  High Count: 465 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  During August 2002 the first confirmed case of a Blue Jay with West Nile Virus occurred in the county. Photo: City Lake, SJS.

American Crow                                                                                                           Corvus brachyrhynchos

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult at nest (11 May 1993, BHS and SJS).  High Count: 5443 (14 December 2002, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  During August 2002 the first confirmed case of an American Crow with West Nile Virus occurred in the county.

Horned Lark                                                                                                                         Eremophila alpestris

            Status: A very uncommon permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest building (17 April 1993, SJS, CJB, JF, GSK, Joanne T. Schaefer, Evelyn Williams); courtship flight and copulation (25 May 1991, WHG, SJS).  High Count: 800 (20 December 2000, SJS).  Remarks: See CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, and WRS.  Larks have apparently decreased, based on results of the CBC and SBC.  The breeding evidence cited suggests that larks may be double-brooded in Putnam County.  Larks are encountered most often at R62, OMR, and, less often, at SHF and Cherry Creek Rd.; formerly (1960s and 1970s), larks occurred with regularity near exit 276 on I-40 (fide WJJ). The high count cited above resulted from a large winter incursion, a fairly infrequent phenomenon.

Purple Martin                                                                                                                                  Progne subis

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult at entrance to cavity (26 May 1988, SJS).  High Count: 300 (5 August 1993, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 24 February 1992 (SJS; Stedman 1992)–24 September 2001 (WB).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, SBC, and SRS.  An albino martin frequented CCP during late August 1992 (SJS, BHS).

Tree Swallow                                                                                                                       Tachycineta bicolor

            Status: A summer resident, fairly common during spring and fall, and uncommon and increasing during summer.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (June 1990, SJS, photographs).  High Count: 164 (21 October 1989, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 20 February 2017 (JCF; an eBird record [S34591046])–10 November 2002 (SJS, WAW).  Out-of-Season Records: 2–3 December 1988 (1) BOP (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Breeding Tree Swallows have been noted at Hidden Cove Rd. (1991–1992), the wet-weather pond in the southeast corner of the intersection of Rts. 70 and 111 (1990–1993), R62 ponds (1993), CLN (1992–2002), CCP (1993–2002), BOP (2001–2002 and probably earlier), and the Cookeville Golf Course (2001–2002); at CLN and CCP nest boxes erected over shallow water were accepted as nest cavities; boxes over land were also used at CCP and the golf course.  In 1994 a nest active at CCP in late June and July represented either renesting or second-nesting.

Northern Rough-winged Swallow                                                                     Stelgidopteryx serripennis

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult at entrance to cavity (19 April 1988, BHS).  High Count: 79 (10 May 1997, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 16 March  2003 (SJS)–27 October 1988 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Bank Swallow                                                                                                                                 Riparia riparia

            Status: A migrant, uncommon during spring and very uncommon during fall.  High Count: 123 (13 May 1993, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 5 April 1992 (SJS, BHS)–31 May 1992 (SJS, BHS); 1 September 1990 (SJS, BHS)–23 September 1990 (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see SBC.  Some suitable breeding habitat for Bank Swallow exists in the county, especially near Sand Springs, so nesting evidence should be sought.

Cliff Swallow                                                                                                            Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and very uncommon but increasing during summer and fall.  Breeding Evidence: Adults in nests (June 1990, SJS).  High Count: 44 (8 May 2010, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 9 April 1999 (SJS)–20 September 1987 (SJS).  Remarks:   Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see SBC and SRS.  Until 2001, only one Cliff Swallow breeding site was known for the county—the I-40 exit (268) at Buffalo Valley—but in 2001 two other sites—Spring Fork and Martin Creek roads, both lying within or near the Central Basin—harbored small, active colonies. On 4 and 8 July 2009 two nests were located on the easternmost side of the overpass at the intersection of Rt. 111 and Algood Hwy., the first nesting to be reported from the Highland Rim portion of the county (David Chaffin [first date], SJS [last date]). Increases in registrations on the SRS occurred in 1996 and 2001, indicating an increasing local breeding population.

Barn Swallow                                                                                                                              Hirundo rustica

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 323 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 14 March 1992 (SJS, BHS)–21 October 1987 (SJS).  Out-of-Season Records: 22 November–2 December 1988 (1) Boring Pond (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Carolina Chickadee                                                                                                           Poecile carolinensis

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (8 May 1989, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 225 (15 September 2007, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Photo: City Lake, SJS.

Tufted Titmouse                                                                                                                     Baeolophus bicolor

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (28 May 1989, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 270 (11 May 2013, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.   Photo: Allen Hollow Rd., JCF.

Red-breasted Nuthatch                                                                                                              Sitta canadensis

            Status: A winter resident, sometimes absent; when present, very uncommon to uncommon.  High Count: 23 (21 December 1993, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 13 August 1999 (RWS)–14 May 2008 (JCF).  Out-of-Season Records: 11 July 2001 (1) east of Monterey near Meadow Creek (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS. The extreme dates were obtained along white pine dominated areas of Meadow Creek east of Monterey, as was the out-of-season report, suggesting that this species might breed in that area.

White-breasted Nuthatch                                                                                                         Sitta carolinensis

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (29 March 1993, BHS).  High Count: 104 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Brown-headed Nuthatch                                                                                                                  Sitta pusilla

            Status: A rare permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Juvenile noted 30 May 2002 (SJS)/dependent young fed by adult 8 May 2003 (SJS, WAW, MPO).  High Count: 10 (13 May 2006, WAW, MPO; 20 December 2008, WAW, TMS).  Remarks: See CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, and WRS.  Though first “officially” noted 15 December 2001 (Stedman and Walden 2003), this species had been detected by Timothy R. Riddle as early as mid-February 1999 near the same site where later “first” found, the Cookeville Golf Course, and there is reason to believe that the species probably colonized the golf course in some year prior to 1999. Photo: 20 January 2002 (SJS).

Brown Creeper                                                                                                                       Certhia americana

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 9 (2 January 1990, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 3 October 1988 (RWS)–2 May 1970 (SBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

House Wren                                                                                                                         Troglodytes aedon

            Status: A fairly common and increasing summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (12 May 1993, BHS).  High Count: 65 (14 May 2005, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 2 April 2004 (SJS)–21 November 2001 (SJS photo, MPO, LIG). Out-of-Season Records: Five CBC records were made from 1957–1982; one count week CBC record was made during the early 1990s; three CBC records took place during the mid-2000s.  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  There are no fall records between 22 October and 21 November.  Most House Wrens are found within CKV or in suburban areas near the city, but increases in the breeding population led to the presence of House Wrens in country settings by May 2005.  Numbers of House Wrens registered on the SRS in 2001 and 2006 were notably higher than numbers registered on the SRSs in 1991 or in 1996; the species also appeared on the 2006 WRS.

Winter Wren                                                                                                               Troglodytes hiemalis

            Status: An uncommon winter resident. High Count: 19 (14 December 2016, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 24 September 1981 (RWS)–28 April 1962 (SBC).  Out-of- Season Records: 21–24 May and 1, 14, & 28 June, and 3, 6–7 July 1999 (1 singing) CLN (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.  Very few summer records away from areas of high elevation (i.e., 900 m [3000 ft] or more) exist for Tennessee.

Sedge Wren                                                                                                                 Cistothorus platensis

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 4 (27 July 1990, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 20 April 1963 (SBC)–24 April 1976 (SBC); 22 July 1990 (SJS)–16 October 1983/1991 (RWS/SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see SBC.

Marsh Wren                                                                                                                   Cistothorus palustris

            Status: A migrant, very uncommon during fall and rare during spring.  High Count: 2 (30 September 1990, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 23 April 1977 (SBC)–5 May 1988 (SJS, BHS); 18 September 2004 (BHS)–22 October 1989 (BHS, SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC and SBC.

Carolina Wren                                                                                                             Thryothorus ludovicianus

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (June 1991, SJS and BHS).  High Count: 288 (14 May 2005, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Carolina Wrens are cold sensitive and sometimes reduced in numbers by severe winter weather.

Bewick's Wren                                                                                                                 Thryomanes bewickii

            Status: A rare migrant; formerly an uncommon to fairly common permanent resident.  All Records (since 1977): 22 September 1990 (1) CHS (SJS); 29 September 1995 (1) CLN (BHS);   High Count (before 1977): 7 (31 December 1959, CBC).  Remarks: See CBC and SBC data in the first edition (1993); there have been no registrations on those surveys since 1977.  Since Bewick’s Wrens nested in 1991 in adjacent White County, this species might have bred sparsely or intermittently in Putnam County up to that time or even later.

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher                                                                                                   Polioptila caerulea

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult building nest (8 May 1991, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 226 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 20 March 2011 (SJS)–17 October 1987 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Golden-crowned Kinglet                                                                                                  Regulus satrapa

            Status: A fairly common winter resident.  High Count: 111 (18 December 1999, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 3 October 1988 (RWS)–19 April 1975/1990 (SBC/SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

Ruby-crowned Kinglet                                                                                                  Regulus calendula

            Status: A winter resident, uncommon during spring and fall and very uncommon to uncommon during winter.  High Count: 24 (19 December 1994, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 September 2001/2007 (BHS/BHS)–12 May 2007 (JCF et al.), a SBC record.  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN;  see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.  Ruby-crowns are sensitive to cold weather, so their population level may decline during the course of a winter, or even over several winters, as a result of mortality caused by inclement conditions during one or more winters. Photo [individual perched on trunk with sapsucker drill holes]: 16 January 2008, DJ Stanley.

Eastern Bluebird                                                                                                                           Sialia sialis

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (9 June 1989, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 514 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  The Eastern Bluebird is sensitive to cold weather, and its population may be drastically reduced by prolonged periods of subfreezing temperatures and snow cover during late winter. Photo [male]: March 2006, Stan Hood.

Veery                                                                                                                            Catharus fuscescens

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 7 (22 April 1967, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 April 2015 (SJS)–17 May 2006 (SJS, Steve Holzman); 28 August 1996 (RWS)–22 September 1995 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Gray-cheeked Thrush                                                                                                   Catharus minimus

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 11 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 20 April 1994 (SJS)–27 May 1990 (SJS); 15 September 1995/2007 (RWS/SJS, BHS)–5 November 2000 (SHF).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC. 

Swainson's Thrush                                                                                                      Catharus ustulatus

            Status: An uncommon migrant.  High Count: 56 (20 September 2008, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 17 April 1992 (SJS)–31 May 1983 (RWS); 3 September 2002 (BHS)–23 October 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Hermit Thrush                                                                                                                Catharus guttatus

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 45 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 2 October 1984 (RWS)–25 April 1989 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

Wood Thrush                                                                                                            Hylocichla mustelina

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest-building (28 April 1994, BHS, SJS).  High Count: 179 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 5 April 1985 (RWS)–24 October 1985/2006 (RWS/BHS), but see also Out-of-Season Record.  Out-of-Season Record: 20 November, 27 November–1 December, 12–13 December 2009 (1) City Lake (SJS photo [13 December 2009], photo [13 December 2009], BHS), and 17 December 2009 (BHS [a CBC {count week} record also]). Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  During the breeding season Wood Thrushes most densely populate the escarpments and the Cumberland Plateau (SRS).

American Robin                                                                                                          Turdus migratorius

            Status: A permanent resident, fairly common during winter and common the remainder of the year.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (19 April 1988, BHS).  High Count: 1750 (14 December 2013, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN;  see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Photo (leucistic individual): February 2007 (SJS photo).

Gray Catbird                                                                                                        Dumetella carolinensis

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (10 June 1993, BHS).  High Count: 62 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 29 March 1995 (BHS)–27 November 2010 (SJS); next latest: 18 November 2001 (BHS, SJS).  Out-of-Season Records: 28 December 1968 (2) site unspecified (CBC, observer unknown); 22–25 December 1998 (1) BAH (RWS et al.), a CBC (count week) record on the first date.  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS. Few November records.

Brown Thrasher                                                                                                      Toxostoma rufum

            Status: A permanent resident, fairly common during spring, summer, and fall, and uncommon to very uncommon during winter.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 111 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Northern Mockingbird                                                                                         Mimus polyglottos

            Status: A permanent resident, common during spring, summer, and fall, and fairly common during winter.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 296 (11 May 2013, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. Photo: 4 November 2001, SJS.

European Starling                                                                                                    Sturnus vulgaris

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with young (June 1991, SJS).  High Count: 150,000 (21 December 1993, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

American Pipit                                                                                                      Anthus rubescens

            Status: A winter resident, uncommon during fall and very uncommon during winter and spring.  High Count: 150 (28 March 1999, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 19 September 2009 (EKL, DAD) [next earliest: 9 October 2002 {SJS, RMD}]–10 May 2008 (DLC, EKL et al. [next latest 27 April 2002]).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, and WRS.

Cedar Waxwing                                                                                               Bombycilla cedrorum

            Status: A permanent resident with an erratic abundance pattern; generally uncommon but may become abundant for short periods in areas with plentiful berry crops.  Breeding Evidence: Pair building nest (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 700 (13 December 2003, SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Lapland Longspur                                                                               Calcarius lapponicus

            Status: A rare winter visitor.  All Records: 20 December 2000–5 January 2001 (1–85) Old Mill Rd. and Hickey Ridge Rd. (SJS et al.); 6–7 December 2002 (2) Old Mill Rd. (SJS, WAW); 22 February 2009 (1) Hickey Ridge Rd. (EKL, SJS).  Remarks: See WRS.  Lapland Longspurs usually accompany large flocks (100+ individuals) of Horned Larks or, less often, American Pipits; the individual found 22 February 2009 loosely associated with Savannah Sparrows.

Ovenbird                                                                                                   Seiurus aurocapillus

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 175 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 4 April 2007 (RWS/BHS)–30 October 2002 (GKE).  Out-of-Season Records: 20 December 2003 (1) Southern Hills Golf Course (DLC, Kris Bolin). Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Worm-eating Warbler                                                                       Helmitheros vermivorum

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 35 (14 May 2005, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 9 April 1999 (RWS)–10 October 1995 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, SBC, and SRS.

Louisiana Waterthrush                                                                               Parkesia motacilla

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Distraction display (2 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 24 (10 May 2014, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 10 March 2000 (SJS)–18 August 1991 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, SBC, and SRS.

Northern Waterthrush                                                                    Parkesia noveboracensis

            Status: An uncommon migrant.  High Count: 5 (9 May 1992, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 14 April 1998 (BHS)–29 May 1994 (BHS); 9 September 1990 (SJS)–16 October 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Golden-winged Warbler                                                                         Vermivora chrysoptera

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.   High Count: 4 (13 May 1995, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 20 April 1996/2015 (RWS/SJS)–26 May 1935 (Compton Crook [Crook 1936b]); 30 August 1987 (SJS, BHS)–12 October 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC and SBC.

Blue-winged Warbler                                                                                         Vermivora cyanoptera

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult carrying food for young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 37 (19 May 2005, SJS, WAW).  Extreme Dates: 4 April 2014 (SJS)–5 October 1999 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Breeding Blue-wings are largely restricted to the western end of the county in the Central Basin and on the western escarpment (SRS).  A “Brewster’s” Warbler (the result of hybridization between Blue-winged and Golden-winged warblers) was noted at CCP 28 April 1995 (SJS).

Black-and-white Warbler                                                                                   Mniotilta varia

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (24 May 1993, SJS).  High Count: 126 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 24 March 2007 (SJS)–12 October 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Prothonotary Warbler                                                                                 Protonotaria citrea

            Status: A very uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Pair at entrance to cavity (20 June 1991, SJS, BHS).  High Count: 8 (10 May 2008, SBC—DLC et al.).  Extreme Dates: 5 April 2014 (SJS)–23 September 1995 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see SBC.

Swainson's Warbler                                                                          Limnothlypis swainsonii

            Status: A rare spring visitor.  All Records: 9–23 May 1992 (1 singing male) Broadwater Branch Rd. (SJS, CJB, DaH); 9 May 1998 (1 singing/1 singing) Icy Cove/western Putnam Co. (BHS/SJS); 19 May 2005 (1 singing) Brown Hollow Rd. (SJS, WAW).  Remarks: See SBC. RWS may have recorded a SWWA at Barnes Hollow many years ago (1970s or 1980s).

Tennessee Warbler                                                                                     Oreothlypis peregrina

            Status: A fairly common migrant.  High Count: 66 (20 September 2003, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 17 April 1992 (SJS)–27 May 1990 (SJS, BHS); 26 August 2001 (SJS)–31 October 1992/2002/2003 (SJS/BHS/SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.  During spring migrations from 1992 to about 2000, Tennessee Warblers were more frequently encountered at the higher elevations of the western escarpment than anywhere else in the county; thereafter, this frequency did not appear to continue. Photo: 12 October 2006, Betty Hood.

Orange-crowned Warbler                                                                            Oreothlypis celata

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 2 (23 April 1977, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 12 April 1992 (SJS, BHS)–29 April 1961/1990 (SBC/SJS, BHS); 16 September 2000 (BHS)–2 November 2005 (SJS, NSL).  Out-of-Season Records: 20 December 1997 (1) Water Tank Hill, CKV (BHS, Lynda M. Mills), see CBC.  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, and SBC.  Note: There are no records between 16 September and 11 October.

Nashville Warbler                                                                                      Oreothlypis ruficapilla

            Status: An uncommon migrant.  High Count: 5 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 14 April 1993/1999 (SJS/SJS)–26 May 1997 (SJS); 11 September 1987 (SJS)–28 October 2001 (SJS, WAW).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Connecticut Warbler                                                                                        Oporornis agilis

            Status: A very uncommon spring migrant.  All Records: 15 May 1986 (1) BAH (RWS); 19 May 1989 (1) BAH (RWS); 19 May 1990 (1 singing) CCP (SJS); 19 May 1990 (1) BAH (RWS); 16 May 1991 (1 singing) near CLN (SJS); 14 May 1994 (1) near BAH (RWS); 16 May 1998 (1 singing) near CLN (SJS, BHS); 9 May 1999 (1) BAH (RWS); 19 May 1999 (1 singing) CCP (SJS, GKE); and 13 May 2006 (1 singing and seen) Campground Rd. in the eastern section of the county (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see SBC.  Note the very restricted period (9–19 May) within which all spring records occur.

Mourning Warbler                                                                             Geothlypis philadelphia

            Status: A migrant, very uncommon during spring and rare during fall.  Extreme Dates: 5 May 2004 (SJS)–27 May 1999 (SJS); 11 August 2008 (SJS)–6 October 2009 (WAW) [next latest:16 September 2000 (BHS)].  Out-of-Season Records: 25 June 1985 (1) BAH (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at CLN; see SBC.

Kentucky Warbler                                                                                     Geothlypisis formosa

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 99 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 11 April 1999 (RWS)–21 September 2002 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Kentucky Warblers are most abundant on the escarpments of the county (SRS), but they are also more widely distributed throughout the central portion of the county than are many species of breeding warblers.

Common Yellowthroat                                                                                Geothylpis trichas

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 409 (12 May 2001, SBC); probably a state high count also.  Extreme Dates: 5 April 1998 (SJS)–4 November 2001 (SJS).  Out- of- Season Records: 18 December 1999 (1) near Oreck facility (SJS, LIG); also two CBC records in mid-2000s  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC,  SBC, and SRS. Photo [immature male]: 30 September 2006, Stan Hood.

Hooded Warbler                                                                                                Setophaga citrina

            Status: An fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 131 (14 May 2005, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 8 April 1999 (SJS, RWS)–18 October 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Hooded Warblers are most frequently encountered on the escarpments (SRS).

American Redstart                                                                                        Setophaga ruticilla

            Status: A summer resident, fairly common during spring and fall, and uncommon during summer.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 94 (20 May 2012, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 12 April 2008 (SJS, EKL)–12 October 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  During late spring and early summer, the redstart population is most dense on the western escarpment (SRS).

Cape May Warbler                                                                                          Setophaga tigrina

            Status: A migrant, uncommon during spring and rare during fall.  High Count: 15 (10 May 1997, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 18 April 1992 (SJS)–23 May 1990 (SJS); 16 September 2006 (BHS)–22 October 2003 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed CCP and CLN; see SBC.

Cerulean Warbler                                                                                          Setophaga cerulea

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and summer (when decreasing in density), and very uncommon to rare during fall.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with two adults at or nearby (10 May 2003, BHS).  High Count: 60 (20 May 2012, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 13 April 2002/2005/2006 (SJS/SJS/SJS)–6 September 1992 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see BBC, SBC, and SRS.  During summer Ceruleans are most abundant on the western escarpment and adjacent bottomlands of the Central Basin, but a less dense population also inhabits the eastern escarpment (SRS); see also this page: Cerulean Warbler Survey in Western Putnam County.

Northern Parula                                                                                                 Setophaga americana

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 105 (20 May 2012, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 28 March 2004 (SJS)–15 October 2003 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Magnolia Warbler                                                                                    Setophaga magnolia

            Status: A migrant, uncommon during spring and fairly common during fall.  High Count: 90 (16 September 2006, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 22 April 2006 (BHS)–27 May 2005(SJS); 12 August 2008 (BHS)–27 October 1984 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Bay-breasted Warbler                                                                             Setophaga castanea

            Status: A migrant, uncommon during spring and fairly common during fall.  High Count: 26 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 23 April 2002 (BHS)–15 May 1990/1992 (SJS/SJS); 2 September 1991 (SJS)–19 October 1994/1997 (BHS/BHS, SJS).  Remarks:  Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Blackburnian Warbler                                                                                     Setophaga fusca

            Status: An uncommon migrant.  High Count: 8 (7 May 1995, BHS).  Extreme Dates: 19 April  1992 (SJS, BHS)–30 May 1992 (SJS, BHS); 22 August 1991 (SJS)–25 October 1983 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see SBC.

Yellow Warbler                                                                                               Setophaga petechia

            Status: A summer resident, fairly common in spring and early summer, and uncommon in late summer and fall.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 104 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 11 April 2001/2008 (SJS/MPO)–21 September 2002 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  The frequency of breeding Yellow Warblers in the county is somewhat correlated with elevation in the county, being most frequent in the low-lying western portions (SRS). Photo [female or immature]: 15 May 2002, SJS.

Chestnut-sided Warbler                                                                     Setophaga pensylvanica

            Status: A fairly common migrant.  High Count: 34 (16 September 2006, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 April 2002 (RWS)–23 May 1991/1992 (SJS/SJS); 10 August 2011 (BHS)–1 November 2017 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Blackpoll Warbler                                                                                            Setophaga striata

            Status: A migrant, fairly common during spring and rare during fall.  High Count: 57 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 18 April 1991/1993/2002 (SJS/BHS, SJS/WAW)–26 May 1988 (SJS); 1 October 1992 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see SBC.

Black-throated Blue Warbler                                                           Setophaga caerulescens

            Status: A migrant, very uncommon in spring and rare in fall.  High Count: 2 (9 May 1996, SBC). Extreme Dates: 22 April 1996 (RWS)–10 June 2011 (JaF); next latest: 2 June 1992 (BHS); 3 September 1998/2008 (RWS/RWS)–4 October 1981 (RWS).  Out-of-Season Records: 3 December 1996 (1) CLN (BHS, SJS).  Remarks:  Observed at CCP and CLN; see SBC.

Palm Warbler                                                                                                 Setophaga palmarum

            Status: A fairly common migrant and very uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 59 (20 September 2003, FBC).  Extreme Dates: 8 September 1992 (BHS)–17 May 2004 (WAW).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, and WRS.

Pine Warbler                                                                                                         Setophaga pinus

            Status: A permanent resident, very uncommon during winter and uncommon the remainder of the year.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young fed by adults (22 May 1990, SJS).  High Count: 35 (12 May 2007, SBC).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS. The SRS does not survey Pine Warblers well as they often complete nesting before June.  The southern pine beetle outbreak of 2000–2002 reduced habitat for this species in the county and appeared to reduce the density of the species, at least temporarily.

Yellow-rumped ("Myrtle") Warbler                                                          Setophaga coronata

            Status: A winter resident, common during spring and fall, and varying in abundance during winter from uncommon to common.  High Count: 303 (20 Dec 2003, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 September 2007 (BHS)–25 May 2004 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS; an individual of the "Audubon's" form was observed on Old Mill Rd. 16 February 2008 (SJS) during the GBBC.

Yellow-throated Warbler                                                                             Setophaga dominica

            Status: An uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 69 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 22 March 2007 (MPO)–17 October 1992 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  Photo [adult male with possibly aberrant tail pigmentation]: April 2007, Susan E. Pirolo.

Prairie Warbler                                                                                                 Setophaga discolor

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 131 (11 May 2002, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 4 April 2003 (BHS)–29 November 2014 (SJS, Ronald J. McDonald). Out-of-Season Records: 16 December 1998 (1) Wakefield Dr. (SJS, GKE, KLM, Jeanne C. Schmitzer); this sighting was initially considered to be the first winter record for Tennessee (Fekel 1999b; Stedman 1999b), but it was, in fact, the second, there having been a Prairie Warbler sighted on the Knox County CBC 18 December 1977; the Knox County record was not mentioned in Robinson (1990), but it was included in the Tennessee and continental CBC reports for that CBC season.   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Black-throated Green Warbler                                                                   Setophaga virens

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and fall, and very uncommon during summer.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 42 (9 May 1998, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 24 March 2004 (SJS, NSL, Nikki A. Panter, Denise M. Weyer)–30 October 1997 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC, SBC, and SRS.  During summer, Black-throated Greens are restricted to the higher elevations of the eastern escarpment, especially east of the upper Calfkiller River and along the western slopes of Icy Cove and on the adjacent Cumberland Plateau, notably in the vicinity of the hemlock-dominated portions of the Meadow Creek watershed.

Canada Warbler                                                                                       Cardellina canadensis

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 7 (14 May 1994, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 19 April 2005 (MPO)–27 May 2005 (SJS); 25 August 1991 (SJS)–21 September 1984 (RWS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Wilson's Warbler                                                                                               Cardellina pusilla

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 4 (9 May 1992, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 25 April 1964 (SBC)–28 May 2003 (SJS); 28 August 1991 (SJS)–13 October 1990/1992 (SJS/SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC.

Yellow-breasted Chat                                                                                            Icteria virens

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 147 (13 May 2000, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 14 April 2006 (MPO)–1 October 1985 (RWS).  Out-of-Season Records: 23–24 January 2004 (1) Walnut Park, CKV (SJS photo, WAW; Stedman and Hawkins 2003). Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC and SRS.

Bachman's Sparrow                                                                                    Peucaea aestivalis

            Status: A rare summer visitor.  All Records: Late spring and summer 1979 (1) BAH (RWS, ASJ et al. [Simmers 1980b]). Remarks: See BBC.

Grasshopper Sparrow                                                                Ammodramus savannarum

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and early summer, and very uncommon during late summer and fall.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 12 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 11 April 2005 (SHF)28 October 1990 (SJS, MGB).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see FBC, SBC, and SRS.

Henslow's Sparrow                                                                            Ammodramus henslowii

            Status: A rare spring and summer visitor, probably trending toward becoming a rare breeder. All records: 12 May 2007 (2 singing) Monterey Lake (BHS), a SBC record; 30 July 2007 (1 singing) Spring Creek Rd. (SJS); 7 June 2011 (1 singing) lower end of Phifer Mountain Rd. (BHS), during Putnam County Foray; 27 July 2011 (1 singing) lower end of Green Mountain Rd. (SJS); 24 July 2012 (1 singing) Spring Creek Rd. (EKL, SJS, JuF, CDW).  Remarks: has appeared sporadically as a breeding species in many surrounding counties, sometimes in large colonies.

Le Conte's Sparrow                                                                                    Ammodramus leconteii

            Status: A rare late falll visitor.  All Records: 6 December 2015 (1) SHF (SJS, EKL). Remarks: Third UCR record.

American Tree Sparrow                                                                                  Spizella arborea

            Status: A rare winter visitor, generally present only during irruption events.  All Records: 27 December 1957 (1) site unspecified (CBC, observer unknown); 29 December 1960 (2) site unspecified (CBC, observer unknown); 12 February 1985 (2) BAH (RWS); 3 April 1996 (1 heard only) east of Monterey (RWS); 1–5 January 2001 (3) Bunker Hill Rd. just south of I-40 (SHF, ILC, SJS); 3–12 January, 19&28 February 2001 (3) SHF (SJS); 29 January 2001 (2) CCP (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see CBC. Present primarily during irruption winters, perhaps correlated with heavy snowfall and/or poor seed crop to north.

Chipping Sparrow                                                                                         Spizella passerina

            Status: A permanent resident, rare to very uncommon during winter and common the remainder of the year.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (19 April 1988, BHS).  High Count: 270 (14 May 2005, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, ,SRS, and WBPS.

Field Sparrow                                                                                                    Spizella pusilla

            Status: A permanent resident, fairly common during winter and common the rest of the year.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 334 (17 December 2011, CBC).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Lark Sparrow                                                                                   Chondestes grammacus

            Status: A rare spring and late summer visitor.  All Records: 24 April 1966 (2) Seven Springs Rd. (WJJ, Miser R. Richmond); 12 May 1966 (2) (observers unknown; Migrant 37: 22); 13 May 1987 (2) west of CKV off Pippin Rd. (DaH); 28 July 1998 (1 immature) CCP (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see SBC.  Lark Sparrows were probably once sparse breeders in the county.

Fox Sparrow                                                                                                      Passerella  iliaca

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 14 (29 December 1958, CBC/17 December 2011, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 5 November 2002 (BHS, SJS)8 May 1993 (MAS, AMS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

Dark-eyed Junco                                                                                             Junco hyemalis

            Status: A fairly common winter resident.  High Count: 213 (28 December 1966, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 30 September 1987 (RWS)2 May 1970 (SBC, observer unknown).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

White-crowned Sparrow                                                                   Zonotrichia leucophrys

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 41 (19 February 2011, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 20 September 2008 (BHS)12 May 1966 (2) no location (observers unknown; Migrant 37: 22).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.  White-crowns favor sites with an abundance of Multiflora rose, a target of many efforts to "clean up" farms and roadsides. Photo [immature]: 21 November 2001, SJS.

White-throated Sparrow                                                                           Zonotrichia albicollis

            Status: A fairly common to common winter resident.  High Count: 360 (20 December 2008, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 19 September 1995/2009 (RWS/BHS)18 May 1982 (RWS).  Out-of-Season Records: 19 May1 July 1994 (1) CLN (BHS, SJS); 820 July & 89, 13, 15 August 2007 (1 brown-and-tan morph) CLN (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.  Abundance of White-throats is weakly correlated with elevation (WRS). Photo [leucistic individual]: 13 April 2003, SJS.

Vesper Sparrow                                                                                   Pooecetes gramineus

            Status: A very uncommon migrant and rare winter visitor.  High Count: 4 (21 March 2004, SJS, WAW).  Extreme Dates: 21 March 2004 (SJS, WAW)28 April 1962 (SBC, observer unknown); 18 October 2001 (SJS)11 November 2000 (SJS).  Out- of- Season Records: 3 January 1991 (1) 5 km north of Buffalo Valley exit 268 (I-40) on Rt. 96 (SJS), WRS; 15 December 2000 (1) north-central Putnam Co. (SJS, GKE), see CBC (a count week record).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, SBC, and WRS. Reports of this species during CBCs conducted 31 December 1959 and 29 December 1960 in all probability pertain to American Pipit.

Savannah Sparrow                                                                       Passerculus sandwichensis

           Status: An very uncommon to uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 37 (29 December 1960, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 12 September 1991 (SJS)–18 May 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, and WRS.

Song Sparrow                                                                                                 Melospiza melodia

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (16 April 1988, SJS).  High Count: 337 (16 December 2006, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  The colonization of CKV by breeding Song Sparrows is partly related by Mayfield (1953) and Clark (1968).  A discussion of the species’ population and breeding range changes in Tennessee during the 1970s and 1980s is presented by Stedman (1988e); see also the species account in BUCR.  Song Sparrows remain uncommon to very uncommon west of the Highland Rim during summer (SRS and WRS). Photo: 4 November 2001, SJS.

Lincoln's Sparrow                                                                                         Melospiza lincolnii

            Status: A very uncommon migrant.  High Count: 4 (16 September 2006, BHS).  Extreme Dates: 19 April 1990 (SJS)–20 May 2005 (SJS); 15 September 2001/2006 (BHS/BHS)–11 November 1990 (SJS).  Out-of-Season Record: 5 December 2003 (1) Nash Rd. (SJS, BHS); 16 December 2006 (1) South Pointe subdivision on Bennett Rd. (DLC, KB), see CBC.  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, and SBC.

Swamp Sparrow                                                                                      Melospiza georgiana

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 89 (2 January 1990, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 September 2007 (BHS)–14 May 1990 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

Eastern Towhee                                                                                    Pipilo erythropthalmus

            Status: A permanent resident, common except during winter when fairly common.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (4 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 248 (12 May 2007, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  A portion of the breeding population appears to vacate the county during winter (SRS and WRS). A male towhee banded 2 May 1990 in Ontario, Canada (BBL unpubl. data), was recovered 14 April 1991 in CKV (SJS).

Summer Tanager                                                                                                   Piranga rubra

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 114 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 April 1992 (BHS)–7 November 1975 (Ernst R. Holzhausen fide WJJ).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS. 

Scarlet Tanager                                                                                                 Piranga olivacea

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 114 (10 May 2008, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 8 April 1992/1995 (WHG/JF, Helen B. Deese)–15 October 1990 (BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC and SRS.  Photo [male]: 10 May 2008, L. K. Stanley.

Northern Cardinal                                                                                      Cardinalis cardinalis

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young (2 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 652 (12 May 2007, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Strong site fidelity was exhibited by a male which, when transported 6.5 km from CKV near TTU to CLN, returned to the former site within one year (SJS, BHS); the same individual was later transported to the Appalachian Center for Craft, Dekalb Co., and did not return. Leucistic birds have been seen occasionally near CLN (SJS, BHS). Photo [male]: City Lake, SJS.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak                                                                Pheucticus ludovicianus

            Status: A fairly common migrant.  High Count: 78 (5 May 1984, RWS).  Extreme Dates: 10 April 2006 (MR photo)–30 May 1983/1997 (RWS/RWS); 6 September 1992 (BHS)–11 November 2016 (SJS photo).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see FBC and SBC. The late fall date involved a bird that exhibited a droopy wing, indicating it might not have been able to fly strongly enough to migrate, but it was capable of flight.

Blue Grosbeak                                                                                           Passerina caerulea

            Status: A fairly common summer resident. Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 59 (12 May 2001, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 8 April 2010 (WAW photo)–7 October 1990 (SJS, BHS).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, and SRS.  A female was noted feeding a juvenile on the late date of 15 September 2001 on Martin Creek Rd. (SJS, CDW photo).

Indigo Bunting                                                                                             Passerina cyanea

            Status: A common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 892 (12 May 2001, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 11 April 1992/1994 (WHG/BHS)–13 November 1997 (BHS).  Out-of-Season Records: 6 February 1993 (1) CLN (SJS, BHS; Stedman and Stedman 1994a), a WBPS registration.  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, FBC, SBC, SRS, and WBPS. Photo [male]: May 2007, Stan Hood.

Dickcissel                                                                                                         Spiza americana

            Status: A very uncommon summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: None except presence of singing birds.  High Count: 9 (18 May 1991, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 20 April 1968 (SBC, observer unknown)–19 September 2009 (WAW, TMS) [next latest: 24 July 2003 {SJS}].   Remarks: See FBC, SBC and SRS. Dickcissels are absent from the county during some, probably most,  years. Ball Hill Rd. has been the most reliable site to find this scarce summer resident. However, during June and July 2009 sightings of Dickcissels took place at two other sites, Bob Bullock Rd. and Cherry Creek Rd. near the White County line (SHF); 2009 was an extremely good year for Dickcissels in the surrounding Region. 2011 was another good year for this species in the county; the foray conducted 6–12 June 2011 turned up Dickcissels at all of the previously known sites for the species and added a couple of new ones (see results of the foray for these).

Bobolink                                                                                                 Dolichonyx oryzivorus

            Status: A very uncommon migrant, especially during fall.  High Count: 53 (9 May 1992, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 24 April 1966 (SBC)–15 May 1991 (SJS, MGB, GSK); 30 August 1991 (SJS)–26 September 2001 (SJS).  Out-of-Season Records: 20–28 December 2003 (1 basic-plumaged adult male) Ironwood Golf Course (KLM, MJH photo, GKE, SJS photo, BHS, DAD; Hawkins et al. 2005). Remarks: Observed at CCP; see CBC, FBC, and SBC.  Ball Hill Rd. during spring and Shipley Farm during fall seem to be somewhat reliable sites for finding Bobolinks.

Red-winged Blackbird                                                                       Agelaius phoeniceus

            Status: A permanent resident, uncommon during winter and common the remainder of the year.  Breeding Evidence: Nest with eggs (11 May 1990, SJS).  High Count: 3800 (19 December 1994, CBC).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  Wrinn (1974) presents data about Red-wing breeding biology in the county.

Eastern Meadowlark                                                                                  Sturnella magna

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 324 (12  May 2012, SBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, and WRS.  Some survey techniques (BBS) indicate a general decline in meadowlark numbers over the past four decades.

Western Meadowlark                                                                               Sturnella neglecta

            Status: A rare winter visitor. All records: 14/22 February 2009 (1) Hickey Ridge Rd. (SJS/SJS, EKL audio and photo). Remarks: see GBBC; very few records in Tennessee east of the Tennessee River.

Rusty Blackbird                                                                                       Euphagus carolinus

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 300 (26 November 2003, SJS).  Extreme Dates: 25 October 1991 (SJS)–6 May 1978 (SBC, observer unknown); next earliest: 27 April 2000 (SJS).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS.

Brewer's Blackbird                                                                Euphagus cyanocephalus

            Status: A very uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 19 (17 December 1991, DLC).  Extreme Dates: 13 November 1990 (SJS)–15 January 1991 (BHS).  Remarks: See CBC, SBC, and WRS.  Since the SBC record is later than any other record for Tennessee (Robinson 1990), its validity is open to question; therefore, the Extreme Dates do not reflect this record.  The observation of dark-eyed females provides the surest means of identifying this species.

Common Grackle                                                                                 Quiscalus quiscula

            Status: A common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult with food for young (2 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 300,000 (29 December 1972, CBC).  Remarks:   Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  During winter, grackles concentrate in large flocks that are surprisingly hard to detect except when the birds fly to and from known roost sites.

Brown-headed Cowbird                                                                           Molothrus ater

            Status: A permanent resident, common during spring and summer, and uncommon during fall and winter.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young (12 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 3000 (18 December 1999, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.

Orchard Oriole                                                                                             Icterus spurius

            Status: A fairly common summer resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult building nest (25 May 1988, BHS).  High Count: 101 (12 May 2000, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 11 April 2008 (BHS)–10 September 2003 (Dena Russell).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, SBC, and SRS.  Most Orchard Orioles depart the county by late July or early August, some stopping off in Mexico to nest a second time before heading for wintering sites (Rohwer et al. 2009).

Baltimore Oriole                                                                                           Icterus galbula

            Status: A summer resident, uncommon during spring and fall, and very uncommon during summer.  Breeding Evidence: Fledged young begging from adult (18 June 1991, SJS and BHS).  High Count: 10 (12 May 2007, SBC).  Extreme Dates: 15 April 1992 (BHS)–12 October 1989 (BHS).  Out-of-Season Records: 10 January–15 February 1966 (1) presumably in CKV (Thelma Tinnon; White 1966a [Migrant 37 (1): 7]); 19 December 1998–10 March 1999 (1 female or immature) Liberty Church Rd. (GKE, KLM, SJS et al.; Stedman 1999b).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, SBC, and SRS.

House Finch                                                                                 Haemorhous mexicanus

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Female on nest (May 1990, SJS, photographs).  High Count: 555 (2 January 1990, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  During the late 1980s and early 1990s large flocks of House Finches invaded the county during winter but were not present during summer.  Beginning in the early to mid-1990s this phenomenon ceased.  A female banded 10 June 1985 in Ohio was recaptured near CLN 28 January 1990 (SJS); another banded 6 September 1987 in Michigan was recaptured near CLN 19 February 1989 (SJS).  House Finches banded at CLN (SJS) have been recovered in Ohio (2), New York (1), and Pennsylvania (1).  Banding near CLN disclosed that some House Finches remove bands from their tarsi (Stedman 1990b).  An albino was photographed on Pine St., CKV, during March 1992 (SJS), and another or the same bird was present December 1992January 1993 on West Oak Dr, CKV (WAW, CEW).

Purple Finch                                                                                  Haemorhous purpureus

            Status: An uncommon winter resident.  High Count: 76 (27 December 1980, CBC).  Extreme Dates: 22 September 1999 (RWS)–18 May 1983 (RWS).   Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, GBBC, SBC, WBPS, and WRS. A Purple Finch banded 28 March 1966 in CKV (RLD) was shot 31 December 1968 in Louisiana (BBL unpubl. data).  Numbers of wintering Purple Finches have declined in the late 1990s and 2000s, with global warming considered to be the cause of the decline (i.e., Purples are thought be to wintering several hundred km farther north than they did prior to the 1990s).

Red Crossbill                                                                                          Loxia  curvirostra

            Status: An occasional visitor during winter.  All Records: 16 January 2017 (c. 7) Lakeland Drive near City Lake (SJS). 

Pine Siskin                                                                                                  Spinus pinus

            Status: A winter resident, absent during many winters and varying in abundance from very uncommon to fairly common when present.  High Count: 200 (2 April 1988, RWS).  Extreme Dates: 13 October 2000 (RWS)–27 June 2009 (GKE); next latest: 9 June 1990 (RWS).  Out-of-Season Records: 15 July 1999 (1) east of Monterey (RWS); 7 August 2009 (2) City Lake (SJS, BHS, JuF).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see CBC, SBC, and WBPS.

American Goldfinch                                                                                      Spinus tristis

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Copulation (18 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 248 (15 September 2007, FBC).  Remarks: Observed at BUF, CCP, and CLN; see BBC, CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, WBPS, and WRS.  A male goldfinch banded 18 November 1988 in Indiana was recaptured 6 March 1990 at CLN (SJS).

Evening Grosbeak                                                                    Coccothraustes vespertinus

            Status: A winter resident, absent most winters and, when present, varying in abundance from very uncommon to uncommon.  High Count: 86 (19 December 1975, CBC, observer unknown).  Extreme Dates: 27 October 1985 (RWS)–22 April 1972 (SBC, observer unknown).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, SBC, and WRS.

House Sparrow                                                                                          Passer  domesticus

            Status: A fairly common permanent resident.  Breeding Evidence: Adult on nest (4 June 1988, BHS).  High Count: 540 (26 December 1981, CBC).  Remarks: Observed at CCP and CLN; see CBC, FBC, GBBC, SBC, SRS, and WRS.

 

Literature Cited

 

Clickable Contents   

            Front Dust Jacket
            Back Dust Jacket
            Title Page
            Copyright Page
            Dedication
            Preface to the Second Edition
            List of Figures
            List of Tables
            Introduction
            Explication of the Species Accounts
            Gazetteer
            List of Observers
            Species Accounts—Geese through Terns
            Species Accounts—Pigeon through Weaver Finch
            Appendices

 

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