Final Report of the Bird Inventory:

Little River Canyon National Preserve, 20032005

 

Stephen J. Stedman, Ph. D. 1

Barbara H. Stedman 2

 

 

1 Department of English , Box 5053
Tennessee Technological University
Cookeville, TN 38505

sstedman@tntech.edu

2 2675 Lakeland Dr.
Cookeville, TN 38506

birdsongteam@charter.net

 

Table of Contents

Lists of Figures and Tables.......................................................................................................................................

Acknowledgments...........................................................................................….......................................................

Introduction...........................…....................................................................................................................................

Description of Study Site.......…....................….............................…..........….......................................................

Methods—Bird Inventory Techniques...................................................................................................................

Results...............................…….............................................................................................................................      

Expected Species List.............……..........….....................................................................................................

Total Species Inventoried………………………………………………………..........................……….........

Breeding Species Inventoried…………………………………………………...........................………. ........

Species Composition of the Isolated Units.....……......................................................................…................

Discussion............................................................................................…...................................…. ....................

Comparative Effectiveness of Survey Techniques..............…......……........................................…................

Influence of Weather on Results……………………………………………………..........................…............

Description of Bird Diversity in Terms of Observed and Estimated Specie Richness…………………..

Unexpected Results………………………………………………………………….........................................

Birds Not Found……………………………………………………………………….......................................

Recommendations for Management and Protection of Significant Habitats……........................................

Suitability of Habitat for Persistence of Sensitive Species…………………..…….........................................

Literature Cited.........................................................................................................................................................

Appendix A: Tables…………………………………………………………………..............................................

ii

List of Figures

Figure 1. Photograph of Little River Falls 7 August 2003 (Stephen J. Stedman).........................................Cover  

 

List of Tables

Table 1. The Official List of the Birds of Alabama (Imhof 1976) as of December 31, 1974………………

Table 2.  Species, status, seasonal abundance, and breeding category of birds observed at Little River Canyon National Preserve from spring 2003 to spring 2005…………...............................................................................................

Table 3.  Species registered during point counts conducted at 33 plots (10 minutes each) at unlimited distance during the breeding seasons of 2003 and 2004 at Little River Canyon National Preserve………………………………..

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Acknowledgments

Mary Shew, Resource Manager, devoted many extra hours to overcoming initial problems with the original plot information, going into the field with BHS, helping with transportation problems when roads were almost impassable, and making herself available at home and in the office numerous times.  Her interest, knowledge, and willingness to partner with us played a large role in making this bird inventory a success.

John Bundy, Superintendent at LIRI, also took a direct interest in the park birdlife, much to our benefit.  The help he provided in making the park accessible to BHS at all hours of the day and night during the entire inventory period was invaluable to the success of the inventory.

Terry Boyer, Resource Management Office, was an excellent canoeing partner, as well as source of bird location information. His interest made the days spent with him enjoyable as well as informative.

Jimmy Dunn and the entire staff of the Rangers Office at LIRI provided helpful information and were instrumental in making BHS feel secure when she was in the backcountry of the park.

Ronnie Meadows (now deceased, but formerly with the Maintenance Office at LIRI) shared his interest in and knowledge of LIRI with BHS and helped especially with the shuttle for the canoe trip.  His personal dream was to canoe the river, but he became ill before he could realize it; however, his efforts to help BHS with her canoe trip ensured that the river was inventoried by canoe for birds.

Ken Tomas, former Resource Manager at DeSoto State Park, provided much information about the part of LIRI that was formerly part of DeSoto State Park, especially since this part of LIRI is somewhat rugged and inaccessible.  His arrangement for lodging in the park was also very helpful, as were his comments about the birds of the park and his enthusiasm when learning that a bird inventory was taking place.

We are greatly indebted to the staff of the Center for the Management, Utilization, and Protection of Water Resources at Tennessee Technological University for high quality management of the fiscal paperwork associated with this bird inventory.  Director Dennis George, Sandra Pigg, Yvette Clark, Amy Knox and especially Glenda Sharks and Mary Williford, contributed much to our success.

Finally, we are especially grateful to Teresa Leibfreid, Inventory and Monitoring Coordinator for the Cumberland Piedmont Network of the NPS, for her dedication and support throughout the duration of this bird inventory.

iv

 

Final Report of Bird Inventory: Little River Canyon National Preserve, 2003-2005

 

Introduction

            Little River Canyon National Preserve (LIRI), located on Lookout Mountain east of Fort Payne in Cherokee and DeKalb counties in northeastern Alabama, became a National Park Service unit in 1992.  One of the longest mountain-top rivers in the eastern United States, the Little River also encompasses one of the most extensive gorge systems and is one of the cleanest rivers in that part of the country.  The purpose of this study was 1) to inventory the bird species occurring at LIRI; and 2) to indicate the status and relative seasonal abundance of documented species.

 

Description of Study Site

LIRI protects about 5670 hectares (14,000 acres) of the Little River watershed, with more land to be added to the park in the future as a result of a partnership established with nearby DeSoto State Park.  Furthermore, some land immediately adjacent to LIRI lies within the Little River Wildlife Management Area, co-managed by LIRI and the Alabama Department of Conservation.  However, much of the area near the park is currently being developed at a rapid pace for vacation homes, and forest-clearing for cattle operations is also an ongoing process, leaving the park corridor, only a few hundred meters wide in places, as the sole protection for the river gorge, especially in the southern end of the park.

Elevation at LIRI is highest at the northern end of the park near DeSoto State Park (425 m [1400 ft]); to the south the park’s elevation along the river decreases considerably, falling to 180 m (600 ft) at Canyon Mouth Park in the extreme southern end of the park.

Fairly mature forests are the dominant vegetation at LIRI and consist mainly of various mixed forest types, each with a component of evergreens, in the upland portions of the park and various riparian forest types along the Little River.  In recent years, the evergreen component of these forests has decreased significantly as a result of losses sustained from an outbreak of southern pine beetles (Dendroctinis frontalis).  Prior to the beetle outbreak, a rotational burn plan was employed for many years throughout the park.  Since many of the park’s pines remain, it is anticipated that burning will continue to be a management tool employed in the park. For bird species dependent to a greater or lesser extent on mixed forest types, this management tool is undoubtedly beneficial.

Besides the Little River and its tributaries, wetlands are not a substantial part of the landscape in the park.  A few small swamp-like areas in the section north of Hwy. 35 are the result of riparian flooding and subsequent retention of some water.  South of Hwy. 35 a beaver pond that lies partly on park land is located near the Lynn Overlook. Near that overlook a power line right-of-way that possesses some wetland characteristics is present as well.  A few other bog-like sites are present at other sites within the park, some of which sustain populations of threatened and endangered plants.

Large (1-2 hectares) sandstone glades exist in the park, providing a rare and productive habitat for both the flora and fauna of LIRI.  Most of these glades are located south of Hwy. 35.  One such area is located east of Little River Falls and may be accessed via the first footpath on the south side of Hwy. 35 after the falls.  Another glade is located in the beaver pond area along Hwy. 176.

Shrub-scrub habitat in the park was not a dominant part of the vegetation prior to the early 2000s.  However, the beetle outbreak (see below for details) probably resulted in an increase in this productive habitat. 

In the following description of LIRI, we will discuss the Little River and the park land surrounding it in terms of three sections: the gorge section lying south of Hwy. 35; the section lying south of the confluence of the East and West forks and north of Hwy. 35; and the northernmost section surrounding the East and West forks of the Little River.

Most of the strata underlying LIRI are composed of sandstone, through which the Little River has cut a channel that sometimes drops at a rate of 15 m per km (80 ft per mi), producing some of the most dangerous rapids (Class IV-V) in the southeastern United States.  The main gorge begins at Little River Falls (14 m [45 ft] high) near Hwy. 35 and then drops through continuous boulder fields that often lie 180 m (600 ft) below the gorge rim throughout the 17 km (11 mi) of the gorge.

Many tributaries enter the main river along the gorge, creating waterfalls during wet weather and offering steep, but dangerous, paths to the river in dry weather.  Several sections of the gorge provide opportunities for rock-climbing, and some sites along the gorge have archaeological significance.

Above the gorge section, the Little River is formed by the confluence of the East and West forks of the Little River and runs from the confluence of those forks south for about 15 km (9 mi) to Hwy. 35. Here the character of the river differs markedly from that found in the gorge, being “pool-drop” in nature with a few Class II rapids and long, solid-rock-bottom pools with slow current.  The river occasionally widens to 30 m (100 ft) in this section, and several fords occur here, providing crossing places for 4WD vehicles, ATVs, and horseback riders.

Above the confluence of the East and West forks of the Little River, the forks themselves are boulder-filled streams with Class II/III rapids.

Park land surrounding the two forks of the Little River is rugged and wild, usually being accessible only on foot.  The landscape is steep, rocky, densely vegetated, and dotted with large piles of dead pines resulting from the recent outbreak of beetle [see next paragraph for a discussion of beetle damage in the park].  Maintenance of trails and roads in this section of the park did not take place during the inventory period.  Past coal-mining activity in the extreme northeastern portion of the park has left a few bog-like sites, but most former mining areas have reverted to mature forest.

As noted above, the year before the bird inventory began the park and surrounding area experienced heavy losses of most evergreen species from an outbreak of beetles.  Three large sites in the park underwent clean-up operations following the beetle outbreak: 1) on the west side of the West Fork of the Little River near DeSoto State Park area, a large block of LIRI land and WMA land north of Straight Creek was bulldozed following the loss of many pines; 2) in the northeastern part of the park an area owned by Alabama Power but surrounded by park land and consisting of about 1 square km was also bulldozed; and 3) north of Hwy. 35 but west of the main river and north of Yellow Creek a large portion of park land near several large private farms was bulldozed and burned.  In each of these cases the effects on park wildlife from the beetle outbreak and consequent clean-up are unknown but almost certainly considerable.  Another site where beetle damage to pines was noteworthy was south of Wolf Creek in the gorge section.  At all of these sites shrub-scrub habitat may replace the original mixed forest for a time; if these sites are maintained in shrub-scrub habitat at the 1-3 m level, they will provide for the needs of many species of birds.

The section of the park lying south of the confluence of the two forks and north of Hwy. 35 possesses many dirt roads that are heavily used by horse riders, 4WD vehicles, and ATVs.  Three small, primitive, public use campsites are located along the main river in this section of the park.  Each of these campsites is about 0.4 hectares (1 acre) in extent. Most undergrowth has been removed from these sites, which sustain heavy use from a variety of users, undoubtedly affecting the wildlife of the adjacent river, as does the vehicle traffic along the forest roads used to access these sites. Several small openings have been plowed and planted as wildlife plots within this section of the park, and much of it is open to hunting during state-scheduled hunts from fall through spring.  A cell-phone tower and a maintenance yard have been constructed about 1.5 km (1 mi) north of Hwy. 35 on Road 103; these facilities required that about 0.4 hectares (1 acre) be cleared, some of which has reverted to shrub-scrub habitat.

Park land near the river crossing on Hwy. 35 has been altered to provide space for a moderate-sized parking lot and an overlook of Little River Falls.  Just west of the Hwy 35 bridge over the Little River is a picnic area and swimming spot known as Blue Hole that provides access to the river for a stretch of about 1 km (0.5 mi) above Little River Falls; it is representative of the riparian areas of the park north of Hwy. 35.

The gorge section of the park is accessible via Canyon Rim Drive where many views of the Little River canyon are provided at overlooks, including Lynn Overlook, Hawk Glide Overlook, Canyon View Overlook, and Wolf Creek Overlook.  These are especially good sites from which to search for soaring birds.  Trails in this section of the park include a short woodland trail to the beaver pond near the Lynn Overlook and the Lower Two-Mile and Eberhart Point trails that provide year-round, but steep, access to the bottom of the gorge.

Canyon Mouth Park, located at the extreme southern end of the gorge, is one of the most used sites in the gorge section of LIRI.  The river floodplain here contains much shrub-scrub, a habitat favored by many species of birds.

 

Methods--Bird Inventory Techniques

            Point counts were the most regimented method of collecting bird data at this NPS unit.  Thirty-three point counts were conducted during late May and early June in each of two years, 2003 and 2004.  The protocol for these counts entailed standing at the center of a 100-meter diameter plot and counting all birds heard and seen for 10 minutes; birds were recorded as occurring at one of four distance intervals (< 25 m; 25-50 m; 50-100 m; and >100 m) or as flyovers; birds were also recorded as occurring within one of three temporal intervals (0-3 min; 3-5 min; 5-10 min) (Hamel 1992; Hamel et al. 1996).  Any birds flushed during approach to the plot center were included among the birds recorded at the point.  Birds believed to have been already counted at a one point were not counted if detected at an adjacent point.  All birds seen or heard were recorded on a special point count data form.  All point count data are provided in a supplemental Excel file included with this report.

            Of the 33 plots at which point counts were conducted, 18 were plots originally created by NatureServe, while 15 plots needed to be moved from sites originally selected by NatureServe to other nearby sites for a number of reasons.  A description of the locations of the plot sites that were moved is provided as a supplemental file with this report; a vegetation analysis sheet for each newly located plot is also provided.

            A second method used to gather data about the birds of this site was the migration walk.  During spring and fall, these walks were conducted 3-4 times per season.  The walks typically lasted 1-2 hours and covered a distance of about 1.5 km through habitat considered to have potential for harboring migrant birds.  All species seen or heard were recorded on a standard field card.  Since LIRI varies greatly in elevation and habitat, migration walks were conducted in as many habitats and at as many elevations as possible.  As a result of the migration walks, it became clear that migrant birds used some sites in the park in much higher densities than other sites.  Two of the more used sites included Canyon Mouth Park at the extreme southern end of the park and the DeSoto area in the extreme northern end of the park.  Fall migration walks were sometimes supplemented by late afternoon surveys for Common Nighthawks and raptors at the gorge overlooks.  During spring and fall the overlooks were also good places to look for migrating waterfowl and Sandhill Cranes.

            A third method used to gather data about the birds of the site was the raptor survey.  These surveys were undertaken during each winter of the inventory period.  Typically, surveys lasted 2-4 hours during late morning and early afternoon.  A route was driven by automobile along roads within the unit.  All raptors (including owls) detected were recorded on a standard field card.  Since LIRI has extensive roads that could not all be covered in one winter day, raptor surveys were conducted over two days; winter raptor surveys were also supplemented by some scanning from overlooks when those were present along the raptor survey route.

            A fourth method of gathering bird data at this site was the night survey, a somewhat informal method entailing the use of tape-recorded owl calls to elicit responses from owls.  Besides owls, nightjars were also detected by night surveys during summer and woodcocks at all seasons. All species seen or heard were recorded on a standard field card, sometimes in conjunction with data obtained using the following method.  Because the density of nightjars in LIRI is unusually high, night surveys were conducted quite often, especially when weather conditions and phase of moon were optimal.

            The fifth and last method of obtaining bird data at this site was the general inventory, involving less regimented efforts to visit many promising sites and habitats within this NPS unit during the course of a day and to keep track of all species sighted.  Generally these efforts involved driving or walking, but three general inventory lists were also obtained by canoeing sections of the Little River.  During the breeding period for birds, which includes most of the spring and summer, the general inventory involved efforts to detect breeding evidence of for all species breeding in the unit.  All species seen or heard and all breeding evidence observed were recorded on a standard field card.  Because grassland and shrub-scrub habitats are quite limited in LIRI, most of the shrub-scrub sties were walked at all seasons and most of the grassland (i.e., wildlife plots) were walked each fall, winter, and spring.  When conditions were promising for migrant shorebirds (i.e., after rain events), all accessible sites in the park that might provide habitat for them (i.e., the beaver pond, Canyon Mouth sandbars, and the riverbed just north of the Hwy. 35 bridge) were checked for these species.  Portions of the Little River north of Hwy. 35 were canoed at least three times to check for waterfowl and riparian birds; all accessible sites along the river were walked numerous times during all seasons.

            Data obtained during migration walks, raptor surveys, night surveys, and general inventory surveys are provided in a supplemental Excel file submitted with this report.

 

Results

Expected Species List

            Imhof (1976) discusses about 340 species of birds found in Alabama as of 1974; this number has grown during the three intervening decades, but it probably still does not exceed 400 by much if at all, and most of the species added to the list involve rare species not expected to occur regularly in Alabama.  Northern Alabama has a much less diverse bird fauna than coastal Alabama, so perhaps 300 bird species occur within the entirety of northern Alabama, though only about 230 of these are expected species. These 230 species are listed below (Appendix A: Table 1)

Total Species Inventoried

            During the inventory period, Barbara Stedman made visits to LIRI on a total of 60 days during all seasons of the year (14 days during spring; 20 days during summer; 12 days during fall; and 14 days during winter).  In the course of these visits she observed 145 species (Appendix A: Table 2) by one or more of the methods described above.  Historical records of two species—Common Raven and Red Crossbill—were also provided to us by G. D. Jackson (pers. com.); we found it noteworthy that historical records for the park area were quite limited.  The total of 147 species represents about 53% of the 275 species expected to occur in Northern Alabama, and the species encountered are very much in line with the species listed by Region in Imhof (1976), as well as with the species recorded in northern Alabama during the recent Alabama Breeding Bird Atlas project (S. W. McConnell pers. com. and R. West pers. com.).  Note: exceptionally strong thunderstorms and flooding occurred in May and June of each year of the bird inventory and will be discussed further under “Influence of Weather on Results”; these weather events affected the results of the bird inventory.

Breeding Species Inventoried

            Evidence of breeding by species nesting in the unit was divided into three categories: possible evidence; probable evidence; and confirmed evidence. In all, 90 species (Appendix A: Table 2) were placed in one of these categories, including 18 (20%) possible breeders, 28 (31%) probable breeders, and 494 (49%) confirmed breeders.

            Point counts were conducted during the breeding period of many species. Sixty-eight species were registered during point counts conducted during 2003, while 72 species were detected during point counts conducted in 2004.  In all, point count effort led to data for 79 species of birds (Appendix A: Table 3), all of which occur in LIRI during the breeding season.

            One result of conducting the point counts and the attendant incidental fieldwork during breeding season was that breeding bird density, especially the densities of breeding warblers, was quite low in the riparian zone along the Little River both in the section north of Hwy. 35 and in the gorge section.  However, there were exceptions to this finding with some breeding species, particularly Acadian Flycatcher and Wood Thrush, being present in quite high densities along the river in these sections.  The fact that the river sometimes rises 3.5 m (15 ft) following rain events may be a factor in limiting the densities of some species, especially ground nesters and species that nest in the understory.

            Another site where surprisingly low breeding bird density was recorded was the old growth deciduous forest plot on the lower gorge side at Canyon Mouth Park.  No explanation for this result, other than high disturbance levels from users of this area of the park, seems plausible.

            Overall, the field work conducted during the two breeding seasons revealed that the park’s breeding avifauna is rich in species diversity but inclined to be present in lower overall density than was expected to be the case.

Data from the point counts are provided in a supplemental Excel file submitted in conjunction with this report.            

Species Composition of the Isolated Units

Generally speaking, the larger and more diverse in habitat a site is, the larger the number of bird species that will be found in it.  This rule of thumb was borne out be the data obtained during the bird inventory at LIRI; i.e., the bird list for the park is not longer than it is (147 species) because the park, though fairly large, has limited diversity of habitat. With little grassland, shrub-scrub, and wetland habitat available (and much of the riparian area of the park difficult to access), it is not surprising that the number of species listed during the inventory fell in the range it did.

 

Discussion

Comparative Effectiveness of Survey Techniques

Each of the five survey techniques used for this inventory was effective for its purpose, but in terms of generating the largest number of species per unit of time expended, the general inventory (resulting in data for approximately 135 species) was probably the most effective, followed by the migration walk (approximately 115 species) and the point count (for 79 breeding species only).  Due to their restricted emphasis, night surveys (approximately 10 species) and raptor surveys (approximately 15 species) generated fewer species per unit of time expended, but the quality of the species detected by this method was high.

Influence of Weather on Results

An effort was made to visit LIRI during periods when the weather was conducive for registering the maximum number of species during general inventory work, migration walks, point counts, night surveys, and raptor surveys, so the influence of weather on the results of the overall inventory was generally positive. However, the late spring and summer of 2003 produced much stormy weather and high levels of rainfall.  North of the park, the Tennessee River at Nickajack Dam near Chattanooga reached its highest water level since its construction.  The Little River at the Falls was sometimes 3.5 m (15 ft) above “normal” levels during most of May and June 2003, and many small streams in the park were up to a meter higher than normal during the same period.  Besides the wet conditions, temperatures were cooler than normal for much of the same months.  Conditions during spring and summer 2004 were not much drier and were just as cool.  Such weather could have caused delayed nesting or nesting failures.  Without control data from breeding seasons with more normal weather, it is hard to know if the point count data collected during 2003 and 2004 are representative or not.

The fall seasons of 2003 and 2004 were each warmer and drier than the norm with few cold fronts which would have caused migrants to be grounded and to linger, thus making registration of them more likely.  These factors certainly influenced the data collected during these seasons, but to what extent is hard to say.

The winter seasons of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 were milder than “normal.” Snow was almost absent each winter.  No “winter finch” (i.e., Evening Grosbeaks, etc.) irruptions took place either winter, reducing the species encountered in the park as a result.

Description of Bird Diversity in Terms of Estimated and Observed Species Richness        

            Although the overall bird list achieved by the bird inventory in LIRI is only moderately long, this park service unit is rich in breeding Neotropical migrants that find the extensive mixed forest of the park conducive to their breeding needs. We expected that the park would harbor a rich Neotropical migrant breeding fauna, and it did.  However, we also expected a fairly rich assemblage of migratory passerines, especially warblers, to occur in the park during spring and fall, but this expectation was not fulfilled (though weather events during the migration seasons of the inventory years may have affected these results).

Unexpected Results

The presence of Sharp-shinned Hawks, both as plentiful migrants and at two likely nest locations, was unexpected but pleasant.

            Merlins were sighted at least three times during migration seasons during the inventory; this once-rare falcon is making a strong comeback, but the occurrence of three inventory sightings also suggests that LIRI is a good place for individuals of this species to forage and roost during migration.

            Shorebirds were fewer than expected, but spring flooding in the rivers certainly played a role in reducing registrations of those species, and then, too, LIRI is not on a major migration flyway, which would reduce the chances of encountering these birds.  Additionally, the few sites where shorebirds might be seen are quite small, typically less than 0.1 hectares (0.25 acres) in extent.

            In riparian sites, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, a declining breeder in some parts of North America, was fairly common, an unexpected and pleasant circumstance.

            The high density of nightjars was most unexpected.  For instance, BHS counted 21 Chuck-will’s-widows along a 20-km (12-mi) section of Canyon Rim Drive 3 June 2003.  This nightjar is scattered throughout the park in habitat where pines predominate, and they increase in density where the pine habitat had been burned the previous year.  Whip-poor-wills are less dense in the canyon area but can be found in deciduous or mixed forests.  They are most dense (3-4 per km) in the northern end of the park near riparian sites.  American Woodcocks were present in low density, but were found in suitable forest openings throughout the park.

One of the most unexpected results of the bird inventory was the detection of a calling Northern Saw-whet Owl, just the 7th ever for Alabama and the first since 1987.  This owl responded with a “toot” (advertising) call to a tape recording of this call in the higher elevations of the northeastern section of the park.  It called for about five minutes in response to the tape.  BHS had played the recording at about 20 other sites that night and at over 100 total sites during January, February, and March during the two years of the inventory, but only the one response was obtained.

            Woodpeckers, especially Red-headed Woodpecker, are present in good numbers in the park, perhaps in the short term in response to beetle damage and perhaps in the long term in response to the park’s burn policies.

            Brown-headed Nuthatches were present in far fewer numbers than expected, being found only at a few sites near the river and at the beaver pond. The “high” elevation of the park may be a factor working against the presence of this nuthatch.

            Wood Thrush numbers in the park are good, though this species is declining in numbers in many areas of North America.  It was unexpected to find them using sandstone glade habitat in the park.

            Migrant warblers were not detected in expected numbers.  They may use the park more in some years than they did during the inventory years, and weather may have been a factor in their low numbers, as well as loss of large pines on the ridgetops.

            Swainson’s Warbler was found only twice during the breeding season, a singing adult once at Canyon Mouth and an adult with young once near the Little River north of Hwy. 35.  Additionally, before the breeding season, one was heard in the DeSoto area.  The habitat they prefer appears to be present along the East and West forks of the Little River, but access to this area is difficult. 

            Somewhat unexpected was a June Yellow Warbler in the park, but the habitat where it was observed (beaver pond with cow pasture) was typical for this species.

            Only one breeding season Cerulean Warbler was located, a singing bird in the northeastern part of the park in 2003; efforts to locate Ceruleans during 2004 all failed.  Habitat for this species appears to be present, but the birds were not using the habitat.  The wet, cool weather each breeding season possibly affected the presence of this species in the park.  Ceruleans should be surveyed for in future years.

            Quite unexpected, the Bachman’s Sparrow found during 2003 could not be located in 2004.  It was probably present in 2003 because the specific habitat it requires (large, recent clearcuts) was present.  Unless the specific habitat this species requires is maintained, it is unlikely to be present.

Birds Not Found

            The lack of Osprey sightings during migration and during the breeding season was unexpected.  Pairs of this raptor may nest in the park in the future, though the sound of gunfire during spring turkey season may affect their willingness to stay and nest.

            No nesting Bald Eagles were detected during the inventory, but the presence of an immature Bald Eagle on several dates during winter and spring at Everhart Point suggests that one day they may do so.  This raptor, our national symbol, nests close to LIRI at Weiss Lake, increasing the chance that a pair may one day nest in the park.

            Although some habitat for Long-eared Owl is present in the park, no evidence of this species was obtained despite the fact that BHS played recordings of its call at more than 25 sites during winter evenings.  Searches for roost sites were also conducted but no owls were found.

Recommendations for Management and Protection of Significant Habitats

            The prescribed burns now conducted in the hunt management areas of the park have been quite effective in promoting the nesting of many species of birds, including Chuck-will’s-widow, Acadian Flycatcher, Wood Thrush, and many others.  Continue such burns.

            Create and maintenance of shrub-scrub (i.e., 1-3 m in height) habitat in the park should be emphasized since much research has shown this habitat to be important to the fledgling success of many species of forest interior birds, the main species nesting in LIRI.  This habitat offers rich food resources and protection to these and many other species of birds.

            Where possible, increase the size of the wildlife openings (game food plots), as these are heavily used during migration and  winter by a wide variety of birds.  Include pokeberry as a planting in these plots, as it attractive to more than 40 species of birds.

            The Cerulean Warbler might become more common in the park if its habitat requirements were catered to somewhat more.  The species prefers mature tulip poplars, walnuts, and hickories along with a low understory than can be maintained by burning (in late winter or very early spring).

            We urge park resource managers to continue bird-monitoring efforts in the future when fiscal resources are available to conduct them.

Suitability of Habitat for Persistence of Sensitive Species

            Northern Saw-whet Owl: The park’s forests seem quite suitable as wintering habitat for this owl; however, the park lies far south of its usual winter range, so it should not be expected to spend the winter in the park often.  Perhaps only during winters characterized by irruptions of this owl will it occur in the park in the future.

            Cerulean Warbler: Some existing sites seem to provide suitable mature forest habitat for this decreasing species, so its general absence at all but one of these sites during breeding season, where it was represented by a single individual, is puzzling.

            Bachman’s Sparrow: Most of the park’s forests are not conducive to persistence of this rare sparrow, but it is not recommended that any forested areas of the park be clearcut to provide for its habitat.

 

 

Literature Cited

Hamel, P. B.  1992. The Land Manager’s Guide to Birds of the South. The Nature Conservancy and U.S. Forest Service, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hamel, P. B., W. P. Smith, D. J. Twedt, J. R. Woehr, E. Morris, R. B. Hamilton, and R. J. Cooper. 1996. A Land Manager’s Guide to Point Counts of Birds in the Southeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-120. New Orleans, LA: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 39 pp.

Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama Birds. 2nd ed. The Univ. of Alabama Press, University, Alabama.

 

Appendix A: Tables

Table 1. The Official List of the Birds of Alabama (Imhof 1976) as of December 31, 1974; the order and names of species have been updated to conform to the 7th AOU Checklist (AOU 1997) and supplements through the 47th Supplement. Bold-faced species (c. 230) are EXPECTED to occur at RUCA during a decade of intensive birding effort; light-faced species (c. 110) are NOT EXPECTED.

Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Has bred)

Greater White-fronted Goose

Snow Goose

Brant

Barnacle Goose (Hypothetical) 

Canada Goose (Ferals breed)

Mute Swan (Introduced, breeds)

Whistling Swan

Wood Duck (Breeds)

Gadwall

European Wigeon (Hypothetical, Accidental)

American Wigeon

American Black Duck (Ferals breed)

Mallard (Ferals breed)

Mottled Duck (Breeds)

Blue-winged Teal (Breeds)

Cinnamon Teal (Accidental)

Northern Shoveler (Has Bred)

White-cheeked Pintail (Accidental)

Northern Pintail

Green-winged Teal

Canvasback

Redhead

Ring-necked Duck

Greater Scaup

Lesser Scaup

King Eider (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Harlequin Duck

Surf Scoter

White-winged Scoter

Black Scoter

Long-tailed Duck

Bufflehead

Common Goldeneye

Hooded Merganser (Breeds)

Common Merganser

Red-breasted Merganser

Masked Duck (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Ruddy Duck

Ruffed Grouse (Breeds)

Northern Bobwhite (Breeds) 

Wild Turkey (Breeds)

Red-throated Loon

Common Loon

Pied-billed Grebe (Breeds)

Horned Grebe

Red-necked Grebe (Hypothetical)

Eared Grebe

Western Grebe (Hypothetical)

Cory's Shearwater (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Greater Shearwater

Sooty Shearwater (Historical)

Wilson's Storm-Petrel (Hypothetical)

White-tailed Tropicbird (Hypotheti­cal)

Masked Booby

Brown Booby (Hypothetical)

Gannet

White Pelican

Brown Pelican (Has bred)

Double-crested Cormorant (May have bred)

Great Cormorant (Hypothetical, Ac­cidental)

Anhinga (Breeds)

Magnificent Frigatebird

American Bittern (May have bred)

Least Bittern (Breeds)

Great Blue Heron (Breeds)

Great Egret (Breeds)

Snowy Egret (Breeds)

Green Heron (Breeds)

Little Blue Heron (Breeds)

Tricolored Heron (Breeds)

Reddish Egret (May breed)

Cattle Egret (Breeds)

Black-crowned Night Heron (Breeds)

Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Breeds)

White Ibis (Breeds)

Scarlet Ibis (Introduced, Accidental)

Glossy Ibis (Breeds)

White-faced Ibis

Roseate Spoonbill

Wood Stork (May breed)

Black Vulture (Breeds)

Turkey Vulture (Breeds)

Osprey (Breeds)

American Swallow-tailed Kite (Breeds)

White-tailed Kite (Hypothetical)

Mississippi Kite (Breeds)

Bald Eagle (Bred until about 1960)

Northern Harrier

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Breeds)

Cooper's Hawk (Breeds)

Northern Goshawk (Hypothetical)

Red-shouldered Hawk (Breeds)

Broad-winged Hawk (Breeds)

Short-tailed Hawk (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Swainson's Hawk

Red-tailed Hawk (Breeds)

Rough-legged Hawk

Golden Eagle

American Kestrel (Breeds)

Merlin

Peregrine Falcon (Bred until 1954)

Yellow Rail

Black Rail (Probably breeds)

Clapper Rail (Breeds)

King Rail (Breeds) 

Virginia Rail (Bred) 

Sora

Purple Gallinule (Breeds)

Common Moorhen (Breeds)

American Coot (Breeds)

Sandhill Crane (Bred) 

Whooping Crane (Extirpated)

Black-bellied Plover 

American Golden-Plover

Snowy Plover (Breeds)

Wilson's Plover (Breeds)

Semipalmated Plover

Piping Plover

Killdeer (Breeds)

Mountain Plover (Accidental)

American Oystercatcher (Breeds) 

Black-necked Stilt (Breeds)

American Avocet 

Spotted Sandpiper (May breed)

Solitary Sandpiper

Greater Yellowlegs

Willet (Breeds)

Lesser Yellowlegs

Upland Sandpiper

Whimbrel

Long-billed Curlew 

Hudsonian Godwit (Hypothetical) 

Marbled Godwit

Ruddy Turnstone

Red Knot

Sanderling

Semipalmated Sandpiper

Western Sandpiper 

Least Sandpiper

White-rumped Sandpiper

Baird's Sandpiper 

Pectoral Sandpiper

Dunlin

Curlew Sandpiper (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Stilt Sandpiper

Buff-breasted Sandpiper

Ruff (Accidental)

Short-billed Dowitcher 

Long-billed Dowitcher 

Wilson’s Snipe

Eurasian Woodcock (Historical)

American Woodcock (Breeds)

Wilson's Phalarope

Red-necked Phalarope

Red Phalarope

Laughing Gull (Bred)

Franklin's Gull (Hypothetical)

Bonaparte's Gull

Ring-billed Gull

Herring Gull

Glaucous Gull

Great Black-backed Gull

Sabine's Gull (Hypothetical)

Noddy Tern (Accidental)

Sooty Tern

Bridled Tern (Accidental)

Least Tern (Breeds)

Gull-billed Tern (Breeds)

Caspian Tern (May breed)

Black Tern

Roseate Tern (Hypothetical)

Common Tern (Has bred)

Forster's Tern (Breeds)

Royal Tern (Bred, breeds nearby)

Sandwich Tern (Bred, breeds nearby)

Black Skimmer (Breeds)

Pomarine Jaeger (Hypothetical)

Parasitic Jaeger

Rock Pigeon (Breeds)

Band-tailed Pigeon (Hypothetical, Accidental)

White-winged Dove

Mourning Dove (Breeds)

Passenger Pigeon (Extinct)

Common Ground-Dove (Breeds)

Carolina Parakeet (Extinct, probably bred)

Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Breeds)

Black-billed Cuckoo (Breeds)

Groove-billed Ani (Hypothetical, Ac­cidental)

Barn Owl (Breeds)

Eastern Screech-Owl (Breeds)

Great Horned Owl (Breeds)

Snowy Owl

Burrowing Owl

Barred Owl (Breeds)

Long-eared Owl

Short-eared Owl

Northern Saw-whet Owl

Common Nighthawk (Breeds)

Chuck-will's-widow (Breeds)

Eastern Whip-poor-will (Breeds)

Chimney Swift (Breeds)

Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Breeds)

Rufous Hummingbird

Belted Kingfisher (Breeds)

Red-headed Woodpecker (Breeds)

Red-bellied Woodpecker (Breeds)

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Downy Woodpecker (Breeds)

Hairy Woodpecker (Breeds)

Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Breeds [not in NE Alabama—SJS])

Northern Flicker (Breeds)

Pileated Woodpecker (Breeds)

Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Extirpated, Bred)

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Eastern Wood-Pewee (Breeds)

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Acadian Flycatcher (Breeds)

Alder Flycatcher

Willow Flycatcher

Least Flycatcher

Eastern Phoebe (Breeds)

Say's Phoebe (Accidental)

Vermilion Flycatcher

Ash-throated Flycatcher

Great Crested Flycatcher (Breeds)

Stolid Flycatcher (Accidental)

Tropical Kingbird (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Western Kingbird

Eastern Kingbird (Breeds)

Gray Kingbird (Breeds)

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

Loggerhead Shrike (Breeds)

White-eyed Vireo (Breeds)

Bell's Vireo

Yellow-throated Vireo (Breeds)

Blue-headed Vireo (May breed)

Warbling Vireo (Bred, may still breed)

Philadelphia Vireo

Red-eyed Vireo (Breeds)

Black-whiskered Vireo

Blue Jay (Breeds)

American  Crow (Breeds)

Fish Crow (Breeds)

Common Raven (Bred, Extirpated)

Horned Lark (Breeds)

Purple Martin (Breeds)

Tree Swallow (May breed)

Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Breeds)

Bank Swallow (Bred, may breed)

Cliff Swallow (Breeds)

Barn Swallow (Breeds)

Carolina Chickadee (Breeds)

Tufted Titmouse (Breeds)

Red-breasted Nuthatch

White-breasted Nuthatch (Breeds)

Brown-headed Nuthatch (Breeds)

Brown Creeper

Rock Wren (Hypothetical, Acciden­tal)

Carolina Wren (Breeds)

Bewick's Wren (Breeds)

House Wren (Tried to breed)

Winter Wren

Marsh Wren (Breeds

Sedge Wren (Tried to breed)

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Breeds)

Eastern Bluebird (Breeds)

Veery (May breed)

Gray-cheeked Thrush

Swainson's Thrush

Hermit Thrush 

Wood Thrush (Breeds) 

American Robin (Breeds)

Gray Catbird (Breeds)

Mockingbird (Breeds)

Sage Thrasher

Brown Thrasher (Breeds)

European Starling (Breeds)

American Pipit

Sprague's Pipit

Cedar Waxwing (Breeds)

Bachman's Warbler (Bred, may still breed [probably extinct—SJS])

Blue-winged Warbler (Breeds)

Golden-winged Warbler

Tennessee Warbler

Orange-crowned Warbler

Nashville Warbler

Northern Parula (Breeds)

Yellow Warbler (Breeds)

Chestnut-sided Warbler (May breed)

Magnolia Warbler

Cape May Warbler

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Black-throated Gray Warbler

Black-throated Green Warbler (Breeds)

Blackburnian Warbler (May breed)

Yellow-throated Warbler (Breeds)

Pine Warbler (Breeds)

Kirtland's Warbler (Hypothetical)

Prairie Warbler (Breeds)

Palm Warbler

Bay-breasted Warbler

Blackpoll Warbler

Cerulean Warbler (Breeds)

Black-and-white Warbler (Breeds)

Prothonotary Warbler (Breeds)

American Redstart (Breeds)

Worm-eating Warbler (Breeds)

Swainson's Warbler (Breeds)

Ovenbird (Breeds)

Northern Waterthrush

Louisiana Waterthrush (Breeds)

Kentucky Warbler (Breeds)

Connecticut Warbler

Mourning Warbler

Common Yellowthroat (Breeds)

Hooded Warbler (Breeds)

Wilson's Warbler

Canada Warbler

Yellow-breasted Chat (Breeds)

Green-tailed Towhee (Hypothetical, Accidental)

Eastern Towhee (Breeds)

Bachman's Sparrow (Breeds)

American Tree Sparrow (Hypothetical)

Chipping Sparrow (Breeds)

Clay-colored Sparrow

Field Sparrow (Breeds)

Vesper Sparrow

Lark Sparrow (Breeds)

Lark Bunting

Savannah Sparrow

Grasshopper Sparrow (Breeds)

Henslow's Sparrow

Le Conte's Sparrow

Nelson’s Sparrow

Seaside Sparrow (Breeds)

Fox Sparrow

Song Sparrow (Breeds)

Lincoln's Sparrow

Swamp Sparrow

White-throated Sparrow

Harris's Sparrow

White-crowned Sparrow

Dark-eyed Junco

Lapland Longspur

Smith's Longspur

Summer Tanager (Breeds)

Scarlet Tanager (Breeds)

Western Tanager  

Northern Cardinal (Breeds)

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Black-headed Grosbeak 

Blue Grosbeak (Breeds)

Indigo Bunting (Breeds)

Painted Bunting (Breeds)

Dickcissel (Breeds)

Bobolink

Red-winged Blackbird (Breeds)

Eastern Meadowlark (Breeds)

Western Meadowlark

Yellow-headed Blackbird

Rusty Blackbird

Brewer's Blackbird

Common Grackle (Breeds)

Boat-tailed Grackle (Breeds)

Brown-headed Cowbird (Breeds)

Orchard Oriole (Breeds)

Baltimore Oriole (Breeds)

Purple Finch

House Finch (Hypothetical)

Red Crossbill (May breed)

Common Redpoll (Hypothetical)

Pine Siskin

American Goldfinch (Breeds)

Evening Grosbeak

House Sparrow (Breeds)

Addition to the state list in 1975:

Pacific Loon

This list includes six introduced species. The Rock Pigeon, Starling, and House Sparrow are well established and maintain vigorous popula­tions. The Scarlet Ibis occurred historically (prior to 1834) and recently, 350—600 miles from probable points of introduction near Miami or Tampa. The Mute Swan is established but apparently not spreading. The House Finch, like the Starling and House Sparrow, probably reached this state from a point of in­troduction near New York City, about 900 miles away.

Many other species, obviously introduced, have occurred recently in Alabama. Some have occurred just once; others appear to be well on the way to establishing wild populations. Some were possibly introduced outside the state and made their way here on their own; others are frequently released in the state, either inten­tionally or as escapes. Their sometime local abundance may be due to increased introduc­tions rather than successful establishment. Some of these species are:

Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) Africa

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Mexico to Peru and Uruguay

Garganey (Anas querquedula) northern Eurasia; win­ters Africa, southern Asia

Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Eurasia

Ring-necked Phaesant (Phasianus colchicus) Eurasia

Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) southeastern Europe

Many other members of the order Galliformes, Chickenlike birds

Ringed Turtle Dove (Streptopelia risoria) Eurasia

Black-hooded Parrot (Nandayus nenday) South America

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) South America Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) Australia

Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) Eurasia, northwestern Africa, western North America

Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) Africa, introduced in West Indies

The Ringed Turtle Dove is apparently closest to establishing a wild population.

 

Table 2.  Species, status, seasonal abundance, and breeding category of birds observed at Little River Canyon National Preserve from spring 2003 to spring 2005.  * = possible breeding evidence noted; ** = probable breeding evidence noted; *** = confirmed breeding evidence noted.  Key to abbreviations: PR = permanent resident; SR = summer resident; TR = transient; UN = unknown or uncertain due to limited records; VR = visitor; WR = winter resident; C = common; FC = fairly common; U = uncommon; VU = very uncommon; R = rare.

 

Common Name

Scientific Name

Status

Sp

Su

Fa

Wi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

____

Canada Goose ***

Branta canadensis

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Wood Duck **

Aix sponsa

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Mallard

Anas platyrhynchos

TR

 

 

U

 

____

Blue-winged Teal

Anas discors

TR

 

 

VU

 

____

Wild Turkey ***

Meleagris gallopavo

PR

FC

FC

U

U

____

Northern Bobwhite **

Colinus virginianus

PR

U

U

U

VU

____

Great Blue Heron ***

Ardea herodias

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Green Heron **

Butorides virescens

SR

U

U

U

 

____

Black Vulture **

Coragyps atratus

PR

U

U

U

FC

____

Turkey Vulture *

Cathartes aura

PR

FC

FC

FC

FC

____

Osprey

Pandion haliaetus

TR

VU

 

U

 

____

Bald Eagle

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

TR

VU

 

VU

VU

____

Sharp-shinned Hawk ***

Accipiter striatus

PR

VU

VU

U

U

____

Cooper's Hawk

Accipiter cooperi

TR

 

 

U

U

____

Red-shouldered Hawk ***

Buteo lineatus

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Broad-winged Hawk ***

Buteo platypterus

SR

U

U

FC

 

____

Red-tailed Hawk ***

Buteo jamaicensis

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Golden Eagle

Aquila chrysaetos

UN

R

 

 

 

____

American Kestrel *

Falco sparverius

UN

R

R

R

 

____

Merlin

Falco columbarius

TR

R

 

 

R

____

Sandhill Crane

Grus canadensis

TR

 

 

 

VU

____

Killdeer

Charadrius vociferus

VR

 

 

VU

VU

____

Spotted Sandpiper

Actitis macularius

TR

 

R

 

 

____

Wilson's Snipe

Gallinago delicata

TR

 

 

 

VU

____

American Woodcock *

Scolopax minor

PR

VU

VU

VU

U

____

Rock Pigeon

Columba livia

PR

 

R

R

 

____

Mourning Dove *

Zenaida macroura

PR

C

C

C

C

____

Yellow-billed Cuckoo ***

Coccyzus americanus

SR

U

FC

R

 

____

Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus

TR

R

 

 

 

____

Eastern Screech-Owl ***

Megascops asio

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Great Horned Owl **

Bubo virginianus

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Barred Owl **

Strix varia

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Northern Saw-whet Owl

Aegolius acadicus

UN

 

 

 

R

____

Common Nighthawk

Chordeiles minor 

TR

R

 

FC

 

____

Chuck-will's-widow ***

Caprimulgus carolinensis

SR

FC

FC

 

 

____

Eastern Whip-poor-will ***

Caprimulgus vociferus

SR

FC

FC

 

 

____

Chimney Swift *

Chaetura pelagica

SR

U

U

FC

 

____

Ruby-throat. Hummingbird **

Archilochus colubris

SR

U

U

U

 

____

Belted Kingfisher **

Ceryle alcyon

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Red-headed Woodpecker ***

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

PR

FC

FC

U

U

____

Red-bellied Woodpecker ***

Melanerpes carolinus

PR

FC

FC

FC

FC

____

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

WR

U

 

U

U

____

Downy Woodpecker ***

Picoides pubescens

PR

FC

FC

FC

FC

____

Hairy Woodpecker ***

Picoides villosus

PR

FC

FC

U

U

____

Northern Flicker ***

Colaptes auratus

PR

FC

FC

FC

U

____

Pileated Woodpecker **

Dryocopus pileatus

PR

FC

FC

FC

FC

____

Eastern Wood-Pewee **

Contopus virens

SR

U

FC

U

 

____

Acadian Flycatcher ***

Empidonax virescens

SR

U

FC

U

 

____

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

TR

VU

 

R

 

____

Eastern Phoebe ***

Sayornis phoebe

PR

FC

FC

FC

U

____

Great Crested Flycatcher ***

Myiarchus crinitus

SR

FC

FC

 

 

____

Eastern Kingbird *

Tyrannus tyrannus

SR

U

U

 

 

____

White-eyed Vireo ***

Vireo griseus

SR

FC

FC

U

 

____

Yellow-throated Vireo **

Vireo flavifrons

SR

U

U

U

 

____

Blue-headed Vireo **

Vireo solitarius

SR

C

C

U

 

____

Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus

TR

 

 

VU

 

____

Red-eyed Vireo **

Vireo olivaceous

SR

A

A

U

 

____

Blue Jay ***

Cyanocitta cristata

PR

A

A

A

A

____

American Crow ***

Corvus brachyrhynchos

PR

A

A

A

A

____

Common Raven #

Corvus corax

UN

 

R

 

 

____

Horned Lark

Eremophila alpestris

VR

 

 

 

R

____

Purple Martin

Progne subis

VR

U

U

 

 

____

Tree Swallow *

Tachycineta bicolor

UN

 

R

 

 

____

N. Rough-winged Swallow **

Stelgidopteryx serripennis

SR

U

U

 

 

____

Cliff Swallow

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

UN

 

R

 

 

____

Barn Swallow **

Hirundo rustica

SR

U

U

 

 

____

Carolina Chickadee ***

Poecile carolinensis

PR

A

A

A

A

____

Tufted Titmouse ***

Baeolophus bicolor

PR

A

A

A

A

____

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta canadensis

WR

VU

 

R

VU

____

White-breasted Nuthatch ***

Sitta carolinensis

PR

C

C

U

U

____

Brown-headed Nuthatch *

Sitta pusilla

PR

 

VU

VU

VU

____

Brown Creeper

Certhia americana

WR

VU

 

 

U

____

Carolina Wren ***

Thryothorus ludovicianus

PR

A

A

A

A

____

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

TR

VU

 

VU

 

____

Winter Wren

Troglodytes hiemalis

WR

VU

 

VU

U

____

Marsh Wren

Cistothorus palustris

TR

 

 

R

 

____

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus satrapa

WR

 

 

VU

FC

____

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula

WR

U

 

U

FC

____

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher ***

Polioptila caerulea

SR

C

C

U

 

____

Eastern Bluebird ***

Sialia sialis

PR

U

U

U

U

____

Gray-cheeked Thrush

Catharus minimus

TR

 

 

VU

 

____

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

TR

U

 

U

 

____

Hermit Thrush

Catharus guttatus

WR

VU

 

U

U

____

Wood Thrush **

Hylocichla mustelina

SR

C

C

U

 

____

American Robin **

Turdus migratorius

PR

U

U

C

A

____

Gray Catbird *

Dumetella carolinensis

SR

U

U

U

 

____

Northern Mockingbird *

Mimus polyglottus

PR

VU

VU

VU

 

____

Brown Thrasher ***

Toxostoma rufum

PR

U

U

U

U

____

European Starling *

Sturnus vulgaris

PR

U

U

U

FC

____

American Pipit

Anthus rubescens

WR

 

 

R

 

____

Cedar Waxwing *

Bombycilla cedrorum

PR

U

U

U

FC

____

Tennessee Warbler

Oreothlypis peregrina

TR

U

 

FC

 

____

Northern Parula **

Parula americana

SR

FC

U

U

 

____

Yellow Warbler *

Dendroica petechia

TR

U

R

 

 

____

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

TR

U

R

FC

 

____

Magnolia Warbler

Dendroica magnolia

TR

U

 

FC

 

____

Cape May Warbler

Dendroica tigrina

TR

U

 

R

 

____

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Dendroica coronata

WR

FC

 

FC

FC

____

Black-thr. Green Warbler **

Dendroica virens

SR

C

FC

U

 

____

Blackburnian Warbler

Dendroica fusca

TR

U

 

U

 

____

Yellow-throated Warbler ***

Dendroica dominica

SR

C

C

FC

 

____

Pine Warbler ***

Dendroica pinus

PR

A

C

C

U

____

Prairie Warbler ***

Dendroica discolor

SR

C

C

U

 

____

Palm Warbler

Dendroica palmarum

TR

U

 

U

 

____

Bay-breasted Warbler

Dendroica castanea

TR

C

 

U

 

____

Blackpoll Warbler

Dendroica striata

TR

C

 

 

 

____

Cerulean Warbler *

Dendroica cerulea

SR

U

R

 

 

____

Black-and-white Warbler **

Mniotilta varia

SR

C

C

FC

 

____

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticilla

TR

U

 

U

 

____

Worm-eating Warbler ***

Helmitheros vermivorum

SR

C

C

U

 

____

Swainson's Warbler *

Limnothlypis swainsonii

SR

VU

VU

 

 

____

Ovenbird **

Seiurus aurocapillus

SR

C

C

FC

 

____

Northern Waterthrush

Parkesia novaboracensis

TR

U

 

VU

 

____

Louisiana Waterthrush ***

Parkesia motacilla

SR

U

U

VU

 

____

Kentucky Warbler ***

Oporornis formosus

SR

FC

FC

 

 

____

Common Yellowthroat **

Geothlypis trichas

SR

A

A

U

 

____

Hooded Warbler **

Wilsonia citrina

SR

U

C

U

 

____

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

TR

U

 

 

 

____

Canada Warbler

Wilsonia canadensis

TR

U

 

 

 

____

Yellow-breasted Chat ***

Icteria virens

SR

A

A

U

 

____

Eastern Towhee ***

Pipilo erythrophthalmus

PR

C

C

C

C

____

Bachman's Sparrow *

Peucaea aestivalis

SR

R

R

 

 

____

Chipping Sparrow ***

Spizella passerina

PR

FC

FC

C

U

____

Field Sparrow ***

Spizella pusilla

PR

C

C

C

FC

____

Fox Sparrow

Passerella iliaca

WR

 

 

R

VU

____

Song Sparrow **

Melospiza melodia

PR

VU

VU

U

FC

____

Swamp Sparrow

Melospiza georgiana

WR

U

 

R

U

____

White-throated Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis

WR

FC

 

FC

C

____

White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia leucophrys

WR

VU

 

 

R

____

Dark-eyed Junco

Junco hyemalis

WR

U

 

FC

C

____

Summer Tanager **

Piranga rubra

SR

FC

FC

FC

 

____

Scarlet Tanager **

Piranga olivacea

SR

FC

FC

FC

 

____

Northern Cardinal ***

Cardinalis cardinali

PR

A

A

A

A

____

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus

TR

U

 

U

 

____

Blue Grosbeak **

Passerina caerulea

SR

FC

FC

U

 

____

Indigo Bunting ***

Passerina cyanea

SR

A

A

U

 

____

Red-winged Blackbird **

Agelaius phoeniceus

SR

VU

VU

VU

 

____

Eastern Meadowlark

Sturnella magna

VR

VU

VU

 

R

____

Common Grackle ***

Quiscalus quiscula

PR

U

U

U

C

____

Brown-headed Cowbird ***

Molothrus ater

PR

C

C

U

 

____

Orchard Oriole *

Icterus spurius

SR

U

VU

 

 

____

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

TR

R

 

 

 

____

Purple Finch

Carpodacus purpureus

WR

 

 

VU

VU

____

House Finch *

Carpodacus mexicanus

PR

VU

VU

VU

VU

____

Red Crossbill #

Loxia curvirostra

VR

 

 

R

 

____

Pine Siskin

Spinus pinus

VR

 

 

VU

VU

____

American Goldfinch ***

Spinus tristis

PR

FC

FC

FC

FC

# Historical records for these species at LIRI were provided to us courtesy of Greg D. Jackson.

 

Table 3.  Species registered during point counts conducted at 33 plots (10 minutes each) at unlimited distance during the breeding seasons of 2003 and 2004 at Little River Canyon National Preserve. Greater detail about the results of these point counts is provided in an Excel file that supplements this report.  Inds = total individuals counted.

Species

 

2003

 

2004

 

Stops

Inds

Stops

Inds

 

 

 

 

 

Canada Goose

--

--

1

2

Wood Duck

1

2

2

2

Wild Turkey

4

4

5

5

Northern Bobwhite

2

3

5

7

Great Blue Heron

3

4

--

--

Green Heron

2

2

--

--

Black Vulture

1

2

1

1

Turkey Vulture

1

3

--

--

Red-shouldered Hawk

3

3

2

2

Broad-winged Hawk

2

2

4

4

Red-tailed Hawk

--

--

1

1

Mourning Dove

16

28

24

48

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

6

7

11

11

Barred Owl

--

--

2

2

Chuck-will’s-widow

--

--

1

1

Eastern Whip-poor-will

1

1

--

--

Chimney Swift

1

3

3

6

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

3

3

2

2

Belted Kingfisher

1

1

2

2

Red-headed Woodpecker

5

8

3

4

Red-bellied Woodpecker

9

11

7

12

Downy Woodpecker

9

11

9

13

Hairy Woodpecker

6

8

4

7

Northern Flicker

7

9

6

8

Pileated Woodpecker

11

13

12

20

Eastern Wood-Pewee

1

2

3

3

Acadian Flycatcher

3

5

8

14

Eastern Phoebe

3

3

3

4

Great Crested Flycatcher

6

8

9

15

White-eyed Vireo

8

14

9

12

Yellow-throated Vireo

3

3

5

5

Blue-headed Vireo

12

19

12

14

Red-eyed Vireo

28

75

30

85

Blue Jay

15

30

13

32

American Crow

18

49

19

59

Purple Martin

3

10

5

9

Tree Swallow

--

--

1

2

N. Rough-winged Swallow

2

4

2

4

Barn Swallow

2

6

--

--

Carolina Chickadee

18

38

21

42

Tufted Titmouse

20

42

22

45

White-breasted Nuthatch

8

15

9

17

Brown-headed Nuthatch

--

--

1

1

Carolina Wren

18

38

26

79

Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher

9

15

11

22

Eastern Bluebird

2

3

3

6

Wood Thrush

8

12

17

24

American Robin

--

--

2

2

Gray Catbird

1

1

--

--

Brown Thrasher

4

7

5

7

Northern Parula

4

4

3

3

Yellow Warbler

--

--

1

1

Black-thr. Green Warbler

1

2

2

2

Yellow-throated Warbler

13

17

12

14

Pine Warbler

23

42

20

47

Prairie Warbler

8

23

7

26

Cerulean Warbler

1

1

--

--

Black-and-white Warbler

11

12

12

17

Worm-eating Warbler

8

13

11

14

Swainson’s Warbler

--

--

1

1

Ovenbird

19

27

18

38

Louisiana Waterthrush

4

5

5

5

Kentucky Warbler

6

9

11

15

Common Yellowthroat

3

5

4

6

Hooded Warbler

19

34

20

33

Yellow-breasted Chat

11

30

11

30

Eastern Towhee

11

20

17

52

Chipping Sparrow

2

4

2

6

Field Sparrow

6

17

6

16

Summer Tanager

8

9

10

15

Scarlet Tanager

10

11

20

37

Northern Cardinal

16

53

30

95

Blue Grosbeak

3

6

4

8

Indigo Bunting

20

66

28

89

Red-winged Blackbird

1

2

1

4

Common Grackle

1

1

5

12

Brown-headed Cowbird

6

15

5

11

House Finch

--

--

1

2

American Goldfinch

3

6

3

9

 

 

 

 

 

Total Species

 

68

 

72