Explication of the Species Accounts


       Each species account included in this work is based on a single template, providing a degree of consistency for those who read more than a few accounts or for those who are looking for just a single type of information in several or many accounts.

     After the header, the common name and the scientific name of the species are provided; these names follow the 7th edition of the AOU Check-list and its supplements (AOU 1998).

     The abundance of the species is then given; the abundance classifications and definitions may be viewed in full by clicking on the underlined word "Abundance."  The number of records of the species in the Region is provided for species that have occurred 100 times or fewer.  The number of Regional counties in which the species has been documented is given, sometimes followed by the number of counties within Kentucky and within Tennessee in which the species has been documented. For most species an estimate of the species' trend in the Region is provided; usually a link to the Regional Bird-Monitoring Plan is provided as a means of offering greater understanding about how the species' trend was determined.

     The status of the species is provided next; the status classifications, including the type of resident that the species represents and the seasons when it is expected to occur, may be viewed in full by clicking on the underlined word "Status."  This section of the species account will also often contain reference to the best type of evidence on which the species' presence among the Regional avifauna is based; the possible types of evidence include Specimen (best evidence), Photograph (second best evidence), and Sight Record (third best evidence); a link to a copy of the photographic evidence may be provided here (or in the list of records [see below]). Finally, this section of the species account may include reference to terms of conservation concern that have been applied to the species by agencies authorized to monitor its population in Kentucky or Tennessee.








     The next section of each account provides the Regional High Count for the species.  Sometimes the High Count derives from a Regional Christmas Bird Count, a Spring Bird Count, a Fall Bird Count, or some other form of systematic bird survey effort.  The highest count based on each of these types of bird survey is also provided.  Usually the basic information (date of count, site of count, observer(s) making count) associated with the count is provided, but sometimes the reader is referred to the next section for those data.

     A section providing Information on Records follows, if 100 or fewer records have been amassed for the species.  This section lists the records in chronological order.  Each record begins with the date(s) of the sighting; then the number of individuals is provided, along with any pertinent information relating to the age and/or sex of the individuals; then the site of the sighting is provided, usually with a reference to the specific site where the sighting took place and to the county and state of the sighting; then the name(s) of the observer(s) follow and sometimes a citation is given for a source where the sighting has been published; the record will sometimes end with an annotation that adds to the value of the record.

     If the species has been documented as occurring at times other than when normally expected to be present, an account may include a list of Out-of-Season Records. These are usually few.

     The extreme dates of occurrence for species that are not Permanent Residents or irregular Visitors are next provided.  Usually the day and month of the date are presented in red, while the year is not so highlighted. Information about the site and observers of each extreme date is provided next. Next, the dates when migratory species are expected to become widespread and when their migration is expected to be complete are provided; these are the dates between which it is most likely to encounter the species.  Finally, when sufficient information about the species' arrival and departure dates for the decade from about 2002 to 2011 is available, these dates are provided in a table following the extreme dates.  The arrival and departure dates for that decade offer a good indication of about when to expect the species to arrive or depart.  Usually these dates average somewhat later than the extreme arrival date for the species or somewhat earlier than the extreme departure date.

     The next section deals with Breeding by the species and whether such has been documented and, if so, with what degree of certainty. Information about the nesting habitat of the species may be provided, as well as information about the nest and/or nest site of the species; the number of eggs in a typical clutch and the incubation period are given, if data specific to the Region are available.

     The species' Habitat is next discussed.  When known, information about the selection of nesting sites is usually provided in the previous section rather than in this section.

     If the species was registered during the YardWatch project (conducted during 2003 and 2004), a summary of the results of that project for the species is provided. This section will give readers an idea of the species' occurrence in yards and neighborhoods and whether occurrence in those sites differs much from the species' general occurrence in the Region.

     If the species breeds in the Region and has been recorded during an Upper Cumberland Region Foray, a table summarizing the species' occurrence on forays is provided; this table includes links to maps of counties where the species has been recorded on forays and links to composite results for the Kentucky and Tennessee portions of the Region.  If links are active, then clicking on them will lead the reader to maps of foray results showing the distribution and abundance of the species in counties or sub-Regions during forays.

     The Remarks section is devoted to discussion of elements about the species that are not relevant to one of the sections above.  Often this section will be of greatest interest to readers as an attempt is made in this section to deal with matters of general, as well as Regional, interest about each species.

     Each species' distribution in the Region is presented in two ways: first a table listing all 26 counties of the Region is presented at the end of the species account.  If a species has occurred in one or more counties of the Region, those county names are boldfaced or otherwise highlighted in the table. Below the table is a sentence with the work "map" in it; if the word is underlined, then it is an active hyperlink, and the reader may click on it and be directed to a standard map of the Region showing counties where the species has occurred.





Clickable Contents

Front Dust Jacket
Back Dust Jacket
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication and Epigraphs
Preface to the First Edition
List of Figures
List of Tables
Field Observers Working in UCR
Explication of the Species Accounts
Species Accounts